Election of 1800
the election that occurred between Adams, Jefferson, and Burr; at first tied between Burr and Jefferson; Hamilton was able to convince people to vote for Jefferson; Jefferson won
provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President. It replaced Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, which provided the original procedure by which the Electoral College functioned; separates VP election from Presidential one
Vice President Aaron Burr
vice president during Thomas Jefferson's first term in office; more famous (or rather infamous) for his actions after Jefferson's first term; killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel; Accused of treason for attempting to take a part of Mexico and make his own country
Judiciary Act of 1789
a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary; created the circuit and local courts
Judiciary Act of 1801
one of the last actions of the (John) Adams administration; created 6 new circuit courts and added 16 new federal judges; all were Federalists
Midnight Justices of March 3rd
the justices that were appointed during John Adams's last night in office; some letters of appointment were left on his desk; led to Marbury v. Madison
Samuel P. Chase
a justice that was a rival of Thomas Jefferson; he was almost impeached by Jefferson, but people noticed that he did not do anything wrong
Chief Justice John Marshall
a Supreme Court justice who served from 1801 - 1835; believed in strong federal government; presided over the following cases:
Marbury v. Madison
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
Fletcher v. Peck
Dartmouth v. Woodward
McCulloch v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Writ of mandamus
the name of one of the prerogative writs in the common law, and is "issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly"
Marbury v. Madison
a case presided over by John Marshall; Marbury wanted his appointment that Adams forgot to give him; Madison refused to give it; Marbury says that giving original jurisdiction was unconstitutional; needed to go through lower courts; introduces judicial review
pirates off the coast of Northern Africa; needed to pay a tax to get through safely; small war occurred during the Thomas Jefferson Administration
Tripolitan War 1801-5
also known as the Barbary Coast War or the First Barbary War; the first of two wars fought between the United States and the North African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States.
Treaty of San Ildefonso
secret treaty between France and Spain signed in 1800; gave the Louisiana Purchase to France
the purchase of a large amount of land west of the Mississippi River; for only 15 million dollars; resulted in increase of federal power; extra-constitutional purchase; able to pay for it using debt that France owed to US; Livingston and Monroe were negotiating with Talleyrand to only obtain New Orleans at first
one of the two negotiators sent to try to obtain New Orleans; known as "the chancellor"; was present during Second Continental Congress and signed Declaration; later developed first steamboat with Fulton
the other of the two negotiators sent to try to obtain New Orleans; became president after James Madison
leader of the Corps of Discovery that explored the Louisiana Purchase; aide of Jefferson
famous for his expedition with Lewis during the Corps of Discovery that explored the Louisiana Purchase
Indian woman who helped Lewis and Clark navigate the Louisiana territory
Election of 1804
Election in which Thomas Jefferson won by a landslide; George Clinton (NY Governor) became Jefferson's Vice President; Federalist party on its way out
an alliance of federalists who wanted New England to secede from the union; approached Aaron Burr; said they would support him if he promised to let the secede (but he didn't really promise)
a planter and a Congressman from Virginia, serving in the House of Representatives (1799-1813, 1815-1817, 1819-1825, 1827-1829, 1833), the Senate (1825-1827), and also as Minister to Russia (1830). After serving as President Thomas Jefferson's spokesman in the House, he broke with Jefferson in 1803 and became the leader of the "Old Republican" or "Quids" faction of the Democratic-Republican Party who wanted to restrict the role of the federal government.
opposed the War of 1812 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820; he was active in debates about tariffs, manufacturing, and currency. With mixed feelings about slavery, he was one of the founders of the American Colonization Society in 1816, to send free blacks to a colony in Africa; had tobacco plantation
Yazoo Land Fraud
massive fraud perpetrated from 1794 to 1803 by several Georgia governors and the state legislature. They sold large tracts of land in what is now the state of Mississippi to political insiders at very low prices. Although the law enabling the sales was overturned by reformers, the land claims were challenged in the courts for years, reaching the US Supreme Court. In the landmark decision, Fletcher v. Peck (1810), the Court ruled that the contracts were binding and the state could not retroactively invalidate the earlier land sales. It was one of the first times the Court had overturned state law.
when one member of a free trade agreement charges lower tariffs to external nations to win trade, and then re-exports the same product to another partner in the trade agreement, but tariff-free; occurred when French traded with US to avoid British
the drafting of British subjects (sailors) into the Navy; before the War of 1812; the British were even taking US residents to work in the British Navy
Act created in 1807 that prevented exports by sea; imports were not forbidden, but the ships had to leave empty; destroyed foreign trade and economy
act created in 1809 that redefined the Embargo Act to prevent trade only with Great Britain and France
scandal in which Aaron Burr bought land from Spain; was in contact with Governor James Wilkinson of the Louisiana Purchase who was a spy for Spain; had the command of 75; convicted of treason; exonerated by John Marshall; the fiasco hurt Jefferson
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
a landmark case in United States law and in the history of law worldwide. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. It was also the first time in Western history a court invalidated a law by declaring it "unconstitutional", a process called judicial review. The landmark decision helped define the "checks and balances" of the American form of government.
resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered. Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents, but the court, with John Marshall as Chief Justice, denied Marbury's petition, holding that the part of the statute upon which he based his claim, the Judiciary Act of 1789, was unconstitutional.
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816)
a landmark United States Supreme Court case decided on March 20, 1816. It was the first case to assert ultimate Supreme Court authority over state courts in matters of federal law.
fight over land taken from loyalist during American Revolution
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
a landmark United States Supreme Court decision. The first case in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional, the decision also helped create a growing precedent for the sanctity of legal contracts, and hinted that Native Americans did not hold title to their own lands.
John Peck had purchased land that had previously been sold under the 1795 act and later sold this land to Robert Fletcher who then brought this suit against Peck in 1803, claiming that he did not have clear title to the land when he sold it. Interestingly, this was a case of collusion. Both Fletcher and Peck were land speculators whose holdings would be secured if the Supreme Court decided that Indians did not hold original title--and so Fletcher set out to lose the case.
(test case; Yazoo Land Fraud)
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)
a landmark United States Supreme Court case dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations. The case arose when the president of Dartmouth College was deposed by its trustees, leading to the New Hampshire legislature attempting to force the college to become a public institution and thereby place the ability to appoint trustees in the hands of the governor. The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college, which pre-dated the creation of the State. The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable to all banks not chartered in Maryland, the Second Bank of the United States was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law was recognized in the court's opinion as having specifically targeted the U.S. Bank. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers, provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution.
(MD tried to tax the Second National Bank of the United States; Marshall ruled that they could not do that)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution. The case was argued by some of America's most admired and capable attorneys at the time. Exiled Irish patriot Thomas Addis Emmet and Thomas J. Oakley argued for Ogden, while William Wirt and Daniel Webster argued for Gibbons.
The acts of the Legislature of the State of New York granted to Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton the exclusive navigation of all the waters within the jurisdiction of that State, with boats moved by fire or steam, for a term of years. Livingston and Fulton granted a license to Aaron Ogden. Thomas Gibbons operated a competing steamboat service between Elizabethtown, New Jersey and New York City that had been licensed by the United States Congress in regulating the coasting trade; he also took on Cornelius Vanderbilt as his business manager.
Aaron Ogden filed a complaint in the Court of Chancery of New York asking the court to restrain Thomas Gibbons from operating on these waters. Ogden's lawyer contended that states often passed laws on issues regarding interstate matters and that states should have fully concurrent power with Congress on matters concerning interstate commerce.
an Indian chief and brilliant military leader; along with his brother called "The Prophet", they were able to wage an effective war against the Americans
General William Henry Harrison
Western general who fought against the Indians in the west; defeated Tecumseh and his brother at the Battle of Tippecanoe; later became president
Battle of Tippecanoe
fought on November 7, 1811, between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa ("The Prophet") were leaders of a confederacy of Native Americans from various tribes that opposed U.S. expansion into Native territory. As tensions and violence increased, Governor Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers.
Macon's Bill No. 2 (Macon Act)
repealed non-intercourse act in 1810; British and French warships prohibited from US harbor; future trade determined by the goodwill of the other nation (France said that they would not seize ships, so US cut off trade with Britain; France did not intend to stop seizing ships, though)
British Orders in Council 1807
a series of legislative decrees made by the United Kingdom in the course of the wars with Napoleonic France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare; in 1807, these forbade French trade with the United Kingdom, its allies, or neutrals, and instructed the Royal Navy to blockade French and allied ports.
War of 1812
military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire; Americans resented the fact that Britain was attacking their commerce; also believed Indians were being supplied by British; wanted to gain Canada
Battle of Baltimore
combined sea/land battle fought between British and American forces in the War of 1812. It was one of the turning points of the war as American forces repulsed sea and land invasions of the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland, and killed the commander of the invading British army forces. The defense of Baltimore's Fort McHenry in the battle inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" which later became the lyrics of the national anthem of the United States of America.
Battle of Lake Champlain (Plattsburg)
ended the final invasion of the northern states during the War of 1812. A British army under Lieutenant General Sir George Prévost and a naval squadron under Captain George Downie converged on the lakeside town of Plattsburgh, which was defended by American troops under Brigadier General Alexander Macomb and ships commanded by Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough. Downie's squadron attacked shortly after dawn on 11 September 1814, but was defeated after a hard fight in which Downie was killed. Prévost then abandoned the attack by land against Macomb's defences and retreated to Canada, stating that even if Plattsburgh was captured, it could not be supplied without control of the lake.
Treaty of Ghent
1814 Peace Treaty that ended the War of 1812; "status quo antebellum" (everything remained the same as before the war)(with respect to Britain and US, but US gained much territory from Indians)
Battle of New Orleans
battle that took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase. The Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814 and ratified by the United States Senate on February 16, 1815. However, official dispatches announcing the peace would not reach the combatants until late February, finally putting an end to the war The battle is widely regarded as the greatest American land victory of the war.
General Andrew Jackson
hero of New Orleans; later became President of the United States; harsh towards Indians
Congress of Vienna
meeting of leaders of European nations after the defeat of Napoleon; Talleyrand appeared there; objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. This objective resulted in the redrawing of the continent's political map, establishing the boundaries of France, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Netherlands, the states of the Rhine, the German province of Saxony, and various Italian territories, and the creation of spheres of influence through which Austria, Britain, France and Russia brokered local and regional problems; was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe, and served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations and United Nations.
Principle of Intervention
principle in which other nations had the right to send armies into other countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
(ex: the many revolutions that happened in Mexico and South America)
an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but ended as an unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents.
known as "The Liberator"; responsible for fighting for independence for many South American countries; he played a key role in Hispanic-Spanish America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in Latin American history.
De-facto governments of Latin America
emerging governments in Latin America that were established immediately after revolutions that had taken place in their countries
policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention; noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries; issued at a time when nearly all Latin America colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved independence from the Spanish Empire (except Peru and Bolivia, which became independent in 1825.) The United States, working in agreement with Britain, wanted to guarantee no European power would move in.
a meeting of unhappy Federalists from December 1814 to Januaray 1815 in the titular location; wanted to pass laws limiting President's term to 4 years, wanted to repeal 3/5 Compromise; wanted to prevent non-natives from holding office; wanted to change ability to declare war; looks like they wanted to secede; stopped meeting after news of Treaty of Ghent
refers to the turning back of the United States on foreign affairs (except for the Monroe Doctrine) that occurred after the end of the War of 1812 and the Napoleonic Wars
refers to the friendliness that occurred between the Americans and the British after the War of 1812
1815 Commercial Convention
this commercial agreement restored trade between the US and Britain after the War of 1812. It eliminated discriminatory duties imposed against both nations and opened India to US shipping, but ignored markets in the British West Indies, from which US vessels were excluded until the 1820s.
(liberalized trade between Britain and US)
agreement between the United States and Britain ratified by the United States Senate on April 16, 1818. The agreement provided for a large demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained; limited tonnage of ships to prevent war
Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty
treaty negotiated by J. Q. Adams when he was Monroe's Secretary of State; it solidified the western boundaries of the U.S.; negotiated in 1819; ratified in 1821; 42nd parallel recognized as southern boundary of US all the way to the Pacific; also received Florida in exchange for $5 million Spanish against Spanish debt
John Quincy Adams
the son of John Adams; served as Secretary of State under James Monroe; became the 6th President of the United States; negotiated Transcontinental Treaty; sometimes named for him and Onis (also James Madison's Ambassador to Russia)
the US Russian border after an 1824 Treaty
refers to the governing of a country by parts of the country; in the US during the early 1800s, the parts were the North, the South, and the West
Depression of 1819
economic crisis that occurred after the Era of Good Feelings; occurred due to the end of the Napoleonic Wars; farmers were able to go back to tilling crops and people were able to go back to their business; US not as powerful in exports; caused crisis
a tariff often used by governments to attempt to control trade between nations to protect and encourage their noncompetitive or undeveloped local industries, businesses, unions etc. giving them time to become competitive; the one during the War of 1812 was still around, even after the war was over; caused sectional disagreements (Northern merchants and existing manufacturers and farmers who did not export were against the tariff; Southerners for the tariff until 1820s due to cotton economy; upstart manufacturers for it)
Second Bank of the U.S.
founded after the First Bank of the U.S.'s charter expired in the years after the War of 1812 to establish central regulation; it was much larger; badly managed; 1819 depression hurt it; 10/1 credit:reserve ratio by 1818; reactionary tight money policy due to depression hurt potential borrowers and existing debtors
American System (Clay)
originally called "The American Way"; was a mercantilist economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. Rooted in the " American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, the plan "consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other 'internal improvements' to develop profitable markets for agriculture." Congressman Henry Clay was the plan's foremost proponent
refers to the creation of public works to improve transportation and communication; examples are roads, canals, railroad, highways, and internet; these were also government funded
National (Cumberland) Road
a government-funded road built during the years 1811-1818 from Cumberland to Wheeling; runs from Illinois to Potomac R.
recognized as a coming leader of the North; graduated from Dartmouth; concentrated on law; great orator; opposed Tariff of 1816; too fond of riches
Martin van Buren
from New York; served in state legislature and U.S. Senate; to him, politics was a game; never really took a position
a Southern leader; elected to Senate in 1807; one of the first to try building a national machine; passed a titular act in 1820 that limited the term of minor federal appointees to 4 years
John C. Calhoun
a Southern leader; went to Yale; elected to Congress in 1811; Secretary of War of Monroe; John Quincy Adams praised him; not Crawford or Clay
Western leader; charming; indulged; still reasonable; challenged men to duels twice; developed "American System" in early 1820s; (known as "Great Compromiser?"); owned slaves yet disliked slavery
Thomas Hart Benton
suspicious of paper currency; another Western leader; championed farmers
resolved the dispute about the titular state; created Maine as a free state in 1820 so that the titular state could be made a slave state; established 36o 30' as the northern boundary for slavery in the West
Missouri Enabling Act
"An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and to prohibit slavery in certain territories"
a proposed amendment that said that no slavery could extend beyond the Mississippi River; passed House; defeated in Senate, where South had more of an advantage
the northern boundary line for the extent of slavery in the West
Election of 1824
election that took place between Calhoun, Jackson, Crawford, (JQ) Adams, and Clay; Calhoun withdrew and ran for VP; Jackson led but no one had majority; Clay swung the vote in the House to Adams; Federalists had disappeared; internal Jeffersonian rivalries
Tariff of 1824
a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods. The second protective tariff of the 19th century, it was the first in which the sectional interests of the North and the South truly came into conflict; nationalism was transforming into strong sectionalism. Henry Clay advocated his three-point "American System", a philosophy that was responsible for the Tariff of 1816, the Second Bank of the United States, and a number of internal improvements. John C. Calhoun embodied the Southern position, having once favored Clay's tariffs and roads, but now opposed to both. He saw the protective tariff as a device that benefited the North at the expense of the South, which relied on foreign manufactured goods and open foreign markets for its cotton.
refers to the voting power that the Electoral College has when choosing Presidents (?)
politicians who were supported by their home states (?)
refers to Clay's assistance to John Quincy Adams in helping him get elected; some people thought that this was unfair (and corrupt)
vote trading by legislative members to obtain passage of actions of interest to each legislative member. (?)
Tariff of Abominations
an 1828 tariff that put high duties on raw wool, hemp, flax, fur, and liquor; New England manufacturers hated it; gave Southerners a chance to block the bill; however, Southerners voted "nay" while New Englanders grudgingly accepted it; Calhoun wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, which repudiated nationalist philosophy and called for states' rights
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
a pamphlet anonymously written by Calhoun against the Tariff of Abominations; repudiated nationalist philosophy and called for states' rights
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made the first American factory in 1790
a labor and production model employed in the United States, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry in the early 19th Century.
(used young, unmarried women)
invented the cotton gin in 1793; the invention revolutionized South; created cotton economy
a boat that runs using a steam engine; Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston built the Clermont, which is one of these; later became more luxurious, such as the General Pike
Irish Potato Famine
lack of food of the principle Irish crop in the mid-1800's; caused many Irish to go to the United States
nephew of George Clinton who commissioned the Erie Canal; mayor of NYC at the time
a canal that stretches from Albany to Buffalo; commisioned by NYC mayor DeWitt Clinton
movement that sent freed slaves to colonies in Liberia
De jure discrimination
discrimination by law
De facto discrimination
discrimination by fact
Roger B. Taney
the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864. He was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office or sit on the Supreme Court of the United States. He was also the eleventh United States Attorney General; preceded by John Marshall
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
an 1837 case regarding the Charles River Bridge and the Warren Bridge of Boston, Massachusetts, heard by the United States Supreme Court under the leadership of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney. The case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract; Charles River Bridge thought that Massachusetts broke contract by allowing Warren Bridge to be built; decision was that Warren Bridge could be built
Alexis de Tocqueville
a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856).