Geography - Government and Citizenship (chapter 8)

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45 terms · Pearson: My Geography World. Core Concepts Part 8

Limited Power

limits the actions of the government by listing the powers they do not have

Unlimited Power

the govermnent has complete control

Governments

are created to keep order in a society and provide for the people's common needs

Government

A group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country or area.

Constitution

a system of basic rules and principles by which a government is organized. Identifies the powers a government has which are limited powers or unlimited powers.

Limited Government

A government structure in which government actions are limited by law. They work to protect the common good and provide for people's needs.

Unlimited Government

A government structure in which there are no effective limits on government actions. A ruler or a small ruling group has the power to make all decisions for a country or society.

Tyranny

Unlimited government can lead to yranny which is the unjust use of power.

Hummurabi's Code

A set of laws created in ancient Babylon (modern day Iraq) around 1760 BC (before Christ). The code was carved onto a large stone slab.

Types of government

There are many different types of governments

State

A region that shares a common government. The first real states were call city-states.

City-State

First developed in Southwest Asia more than 5,000 years ago. It is an independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory.

Empire

A state containing several countries.

Democracy

A form of government in which citizens hold political power; citizens are the ultimate source of government power and authority.

Nation-State

A state that is independent of other states. Also called nations or countries.

Monarchy

A form of government in which the state is ruled by a monarch (King, Queen, Emperor, etc)

Authoritarian

A government in which all power is held by a single person or a small group.

Communism

A political and economic system in which government owns all property and makes all economic decisions.

Ancient Athens

An example of direct democracy

United States

and example of representative democracy

Political Structures

Help governments operate in an organized way

Unitary System

A central government makes all laws for the entire country

Federal System

Power is divided among central, regional, and local governments ie: The United States

Legislative Branch

Establishes laws. In a representative democracy like the United States, citizens elect legislative representatives to make decisions for them. It also imposes taxes which are used to pay for government services.

Executive Branch

Carries out, or enforces, the laws created by the legislative branch. Provides for the country's defense, conducts foreign policy, and manages day to day affairs of government.

Judicial Branch

makes decisions about disputes. It does this through courts of law.

The Supreme Court

The highest court in the land. Interprets laws passed by congress (legislative branch).

What are the three branches of US Government

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

Sovereignty

Every nation-state has clearly defined territory and power over that territory. Sovereignty is supreme authority or power over that land and its people.

Foreign Policy

A set of of goals describing how a country's government plan to interact with other countries' governments. Reflects the countries values and intentions.

Treaty

A formal agreement between tow or more countries

Diplomacy

managing communication and relationships between countries.

United Nations

A body of world governments that seeks to encourage international cooperation and achieve world peace.

World Bank

Provides loans for projects aimed at promoting economic development

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Seeks to prevent and resolve economic crises by offering advice, information, technical training, and loans.

Citizen

a legal member of a country

Civic life

activities having to do with one's society and community.

Civic participation

taking part in government such as voting, demonstrations, running for public office, signing a petition, etc

Political Party

A group that supports candidates for public offices.

Interest Group

a group that seeks to influence public policy on certain issues that interests that group.

Why did governments form thousand of years ago

As communities matured, grew, and became more complicated governments evolved to keep order in a society and provide for the people's common needs.

Central Government

Responsible for national affairs

Regional Government

include state or provincial goverments

Local Government

include county (Howard), city (Pittsburgh), and town governments.

The US Constitution

Provides for three equal branches of government which provide for a separation of power and a system of checks and balances that limits each branch'es power to they do not become too powerful or more powerful than another branch.

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