Chemistry ch. 15

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valence electrons

electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atom

chemical properties, chemical bonds

The valence electrons largely determine the ______________ of an element and are usually the only electrons used in _____________.

electron dot structure

diagram that shows the valence electrons as dots

cation

metallic atoms tend to lose their valence electrons to produce a ______________.

sharing

most nonmetallic atoms achieve a complete octect by gaining or ____________ electrons.

anions

Atoms of most nonmetallic elements achieve noble-gas electron configurations by gaining electrons to become __________, or negatively charged ions.

They have relatively full valence shells.

What property of nonmetallic elements makes them more likely to gain electrons than lose electrons?

ionic bond

electrostatic force of attraction that binds oppositely charged ions

cations, anions, neutral

In an ionic compound, the charges of the _________ and _________ must balance to produce an electrically __________ substance.

crystalline solids

most ionic compounds are _______________ at room temperature.

false

Is the following sentence true or false? ionic compounds generally have low melting points.

metallic bonds

the forces of attraction between
free-floating valence electrons and positively charged metal ions

electrical conductivity, ductility, malleability

Name three properties of metals that can be explained by metallic bonding

alloy

a mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal

false

Is the following sentence true or false? Pure metals are usually harder and more durable than alloys.

interstitial alloy

type of alloy that have smaller atoms that fit into the spaces between larger atoms

substitutional alloy

type of alloy that have component atoms that are rougly equal in size

dissolved in water

ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity when.......

solids

Ionic compounds usually have high melting points, which explains why ionic compounds are usually found as ___________ at room temperature.

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