What are the characteristics of slow-twitch fibers?
They generate less power, last longer, and generate ATP using oxygen
What are the characteristics of fast-twitch fibers?
They generate more power, fatigue much more quickly, can generate ATP without using oxygen
Animals depend on plants to convert solar energy to what?
Chemical energy of sugars and other molecules we consume food
What is photosynthesis?
Uses light energy from the sun to power a chemical process that makes organic molecules
What are autotrophs and give one example?
Make their own organic material from inorganic nutrients. Ex: Plants
What are heterotrophs and give one example?
Animals that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones. Ex: Humans
Autotrophs are _____ because ecosystems depend upon them for food.
Heterotrophs are _____ because they eat plants or other animals.
What are the two ingredients for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water
In photosynthesis CO2 is obtained from what?
The air by plant's leaves
In photosynthesis H2O is obtained from what?
Damp soil by plant's roots
What do the the chloroplasts in cells of leaves do?
Use light energy to rearrange the atoms of CO2 and H2O which produces sugar, other organic materials and oxygen.
Plant and animal cells perform cellular respiration, a chemical process that does what?
Primarily occurs in mitochrondia, harvests energy stored in organic molecules, uses oxygen, and generates ATP.
The waste products of cellular respiration are what?
CO2 and H2O, used in photosynthesis
Animals perform _______.
Plants perform ________.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration
What is cellular respiration?
The main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP. An aerobic process and requires oxygen
Cellular respiration and breathing are closely related but what are the differences?
Cellular respiration requires a cell to exchange gases with its surroundings (cells take in oxygen gas and release waste carbon dioxide gas). Breathing exchanges these gases between blood and outside air
The common fuel moleucle for cellular respiration is what?
What is the overall equation for what happens to glucose during cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -------- 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water
Cellular respiration can produce up to ____ ATP molecules for each glucose molecules consumed
During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners. Explain more about this hydrogen transfer.
Hydrogen and its electrons go from sugar to oxygen, forming water. This hydrogen transfer is why oxygen is so vital to cellular respiration
Chemical reaction that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called what?
Oxidation -reduction or redox reactions for short
The loss of electrons during a redox reaction is called _______.
The acceptance of electrons during a redox reaction is celled ______.
During cellular respiration what is oxidized and what is reduced?
Glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced
Why does electron transfer to oxygen release energy?
When electrons move from glucose to oxygen, it is as though the electrons were falling. This fall of electrons release energy during cellular respiration.
What is electron transport chains?
A controlled fall of electrons. A stepwise cascade much like going down a staircase. The path that electrons take on their way down from glucose to oxygen involves many steps
What is the first step in the Electron Transport Chain?
The transfer of electrons from organic fuel to NAD+ reduces it to NADH
What happens after step one in the Electron Transport Chain?
The rest of the path consists of an electron transport chain which involves a series of redox reaction and ultimately leads to the production of large amounts of ATP.
Cellular respiration is an example of what?
A metabolic pathway which is a series of chemical reactions in cells
All of the reactions involved in cellular respiration can be grouped into what three main stages?
Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, and Electron Transport
What is the first stage of cellular respiration and what happens during this stage?
Glycolysis. A six-is carbon glucose molecule is split in half to form two molecules of pyruvic acid (uses two ATP molecules per glucos to split the six carbon glucose).These two molecules then donate high energy electrons to NAD+ forming NADH. Makes four additional ATP directly when enzymes transfer phosphate groups from fuel moleclues to ADP. Produces a net of two molecules of ATP per glucose molecules
What is the second stage of cellular respiration and what happens during this stage?
Citric Acid Cycle. Completes the breakdown of sugar. Pyruvic acid from glycolysis is first "prepped." Extracts the energy of sugar by breaking the acetic acid molecules all the way down to CO2. Uses some of the energy to make ATP. Forms NADH and FADH2.
What is the third stage of cellular respiration and what happens during this stage?
Electron Transport. Releases the energy your cells need to make the most of their ATP. The molecules are built into the inner membranes of the mitochrondia. The chain functions as a chemical machine that uses energy released by the "fall" of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochrondia of membrane. These ions store potential energy. When the hydrogens ions flow back through the membrane they release energy. The hydrogen ions flow through ATP synthase. ATP synthase takes the energy from this flow and synthesizes ATP.
Cyanide is a deadly poison that does what?
Binds to one of the protein complexes in the electron transport chain, prevents the passage of electrons to oxygen, stops the production of ATP.
In addition to glucose, cellular respiration can burn what?
Diverse types of carbonhydrates, fats, proteins.
Some of your cells can actually work for short periods without oxygen. _____ is the anaerobic harvest of food energy.
How does fermentation work in human muscle cells?
After functioning anaerobically for about 15 seconds muscle cells will begin to generate ATP by the process of fermentation. Fermentation relies on glycolysis to produce ATP. Goes through glycolysis: does not require oxygen, produces two ATP molecules for each glucose broken down to pyruvic acid. The pyruvic acid produced is reduced by NADH, producing NAD+, which keeps glycolysis going. Lactic acid is a by-product.
The lactic acid produced by microbes using fermentation is used to produce
Cheese, sour cream, yogurt dairy products, soy sauce, pickles, olives, and sausage meat products
Yeast are a type of microscopic fungus that does what?
Produces CO2 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic acid
Alcohol Fermentation is used to produce what?
Beer, wine, and breads (Yeast)
What could be used by ancient bacteria to make ATP when little oxygen was available, and before organells evolved
Today glycolysis ....
Occurs in almost all organisms and is a metabolic heirloom of the first stage in the breakdown of organic molecules