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acid

substance that increases the concentration of H+ ions

base

substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions (increases OH- ions)

buffer

a substance that resists change in pH

monosaccharide

monomer of carbohydrates

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids

glycogen

storage carbohydrate found in animals

amino acid

monomer of proteins

phospholipid

glycerol + fatty acids + phosphate group

steroid

four ring lipid

benedict's test

tests for monosaccharides (changes blue to red)

iodine test for starch

tests for complex carbohydrates (organge to black)

biuret test

identifies materials with at least four peptide bonds (lavender shade)

sudan III solubility test

tests for lipids (mix = lipids b/c nonpolar)

dische diphenylamine test

test for deoxyribose (turns blue)

isotonic

equilibrium

hypertonic

higher concentration of solutes outside of cell

hypotonic

lower concentration of solutes outside of cell

brownian movement

random motion causes net movement of molecules from an area where they are in higher concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration

plasmolysis

cell shrinks due to hypertonic solution

nucleus

control center, contains genetic information

nucleolus

synthesis of rRNA and ribosomes

nuclear pore

small molecules diffuse

chromatin

regulate gene expression

rough ER

transports proteins synthesized by ribosomes

smooth ER

synthesizes lipids, carbs, and steroid hormones

ribosome

protein synthesis

golgi apparatus

packages protein for export from the cell

secretory vesicles

stores and transports materials

lysosome

digest worn-out organelles and cell debris; digest material taken up by endocytosis

glyoxysome

microbody with enzymes that convert fats into carbohydrates

peroxisome

microbody that contains enzymes that catalyze the removal of electrons and associated H atoms

mitochondria

power plants of the cell

chloroplast

photosynthesis site

cell wall

protection; support

central vacuole

stores proteins, pigments, and waste materials. Regulates water balance.

centriole

divides and organizes spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis

cytoskeleton

structural support, cell movement, movement of vesicles within cell

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