Ancient Egypt and Nubia

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Nubia

ancient region in Nile River Valley (southern Egypt/northern Sudan)

cataract

large waterfall; any strong flood or rush of water

delta

a plain at the mouth of the river formed when sediment is deposited by water

silt

fine soil found on river bottoms

throwstick

a type of boomerang used by ancient Egyptians to hunt for birds

Herodotus

Greek historian who explored Egypt in 400s B.C.

Who claimed there would "be no Egypt without the Nile"

Herodotus

Nile River

World's longest river; flows North from East Africa to Mediterranean Sea

4,000 miles

Length of Nile River

Two sources of Nile River

Blue Nile and White Nile

Blue Nile

Starts in highlands of Ethiopia and goes through desert

White Nile

Calmer river that begins deep in East Africa and flows through swamps

S-bend in Nile River

1,000 miles in length, north of joining of two Nile rivers, site of ancient Nubia

six

How many cataracts are in the Nile River?

Lower Nubia

Located between first and second cataract in Nile River

Little land for farming, no rain, lived close to banks of Nile River

What was Lower Nubia?

Upper Nubia

Located further south between second and sixth cataracts in Nile River.

Narrow strips of farmland with some rain, actual harvest in the Fall

What is Upper Nubia?

700 miles

Length of Nile through ancient Egypt

Narrow region with fertile strip of 6 miles on either side of the Nile River

Upper Egypt

Fertile, marshy area near Nile with deserts on either side

Lower Egypt

Nile splits into streams here and flows into Mediterranean

Delta plain

God of Nile

Hapi

Reason for wealth of farmland in Egypt

Silt formed by Nile overflowing its banks and flooding the land

The Black Land left by dark soil from Nile Floods

Kemet

Difference between Nile River and Mesopotamia

There were no flash floods on the Nile River

Vast desert on either side of the Nile River

Red lands

Hot sands of the desert

What shielded Nubia and Egypt from attack?

Wide open land between Tigris and Euphrates

What caused Mesopotamia to be wide open to invasions?

Nile Valley

What was path for trade with Central Africa?

Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea

What provided Egypt with access to Southwest Asia?

Before farming was established in 6,000 B.C.

When did Nubians set up their communities?

5,000 B.C.

When did Nubians establish farming communities?

Around delta and valley regions of Nile

Where were Egypt's early farming communities located?

Straw and mud bricks

What were their homes made of?

Fish, ducks and other birds

What was also part of the Nubian diet?

Aswan High Dam

What threatened to destroy ancient monuments along the Nile River?

Nile River

What was the highway for trade in ancient Egypt?

Caravans across the desert

Besides ships on the Nile River, how else did goods get to the Red Sea or Mesopotamia?

gold, silver, copper and fine pottery

Name some goods sold by caravans traveling from Nile River?

cedar wood, gold

What were some valuable goods sold in Egypt's bazaars?

cataracts

Why couldn't people travel through Ancient Nubia by river?

trade routes over land

What did the Nubians develop to famous traders in the ancient world?

Queen Hatshepsut

Who was a famous pharoah who ruled Egypt for her step-son?

15 years

How long was Hatshepsut in power?

Pharaoh

What is the title of ancient Kings of Egypt?

Dynasty

What is the name of a series of rulers from the same family or ethnic group?

Absolute power

What is the name of a type of ruler who has complete control over someone or something?

Regent

Who is someone who rules for a childd until the child is old enough to rule for themselves?

Thutmose III

Who was Hatshepsut regent for?

False beard

What was traditionally worn by pharaohs?

Sphinx

What is the creature with a lion's body and a human head?

History of her dynasties

What is really the history of ancient Egypt based on?

31

How many dynasties were there in ancient Egypt?

Kingdoms

How were the dynasties grouped by historians?

Gaps between kingdoms

How were times of trouble, like war, invasion or weak rulers noted on the Egyptian timeline?

Stable

In general, how was ancient Egypt's history?

Menes

Who was first king to unify Upper and Lower Egypt?

Memphis

What city did Menes build?

Two Lands

What is the name the ancient Egyptians gave to Upper and Lower Egypt?

White

What was the color of the crown of Upper Egypt?

Red

What was the color of the crown of Lower Egypt?

Narmer

What is another name for Menes?

Absolute power

What type of power did the pharaohs have/

Ma'at

Who was the goddess of truth?

Advisors or Ma'at

Who did the pharaohs ask for help in making their decisions?

Reed plants

What represents Lower Egypt on carvings?

Cone-shaped crown and false beard and tail

What were the symbols of Egyptian kingship?

3,100 B.C.

When was Egypt unified?

2,589 B.C.

When did builders start the great Pyramid?

2,686-2,181 B.C.

What was time period of the Old Kingdom?

1,991 - 1,786 B.C.

What was time period of the Middle Kingdom?

1,567 - 1,085 B.C.

What was time period of the New Kingdom?

Earthly form of Horus

What did ancient Egyptians believe their pharaohs were?

Horus

Who was the falcon god?

Pharaoh

Who provided the people of Egypt with Nile's yearly floods and harvests?

King Tutankhamen

Who was a famous pharaoh during the New Kingdom?

Bronze swords and body armor

What made the Egyptians unbeatable during the New Kingdom?

Studies of Tutankhamen's funeral treasures

What has taught us the most about ancient Egyptians?

Public works, building projects and irrigation projects

Name three things that the rulers of the Middle Kingdom achieved?

Timber and wood for buildings

What was most desired by trade in the Old Kingdom?

Provinces challenged pharaoh's government

What led to downfall of the Old Kingdom?

Because Thutmose III was too young to rule

Why did Hatshepsut appoint herself regent over her step-son?

15 years

How long did Hatshepsut rule over Egypt?

Land of Punt in East Africa

Where did Hatshepsut send a trade expedition?

Ivory, leopard skins, trees for incense

What was brought back from the Punt expedition?

She died

Why did Hatshepsut finally yield the throne to Thutmose III?

Led armies to war over Syria and Phoenicia

Why is Thutmose III considered to be such a great pharaoh?

Euphrates River

What was the farthest that Thutmose III advanced with his armies?

Civil war

What left Egypt weak by the end of the New Kingdom?

Alexander the Great

Who conquered Egypt after the end of the New Kingdom?

332 B.C.

What year did Alexander the Great conquer Egypt?

300 years

How long did the Macedonians rule over Egypt?

Queen Cleopatra VII

Who was the last Macedonian ruler of Egypt?

Romans

Who conquered Egypt under Cleopatra's rule?

To avoid humiliation by the Romans

Why did Cleopatra commit suicide?

2,000 years

How long would it be before Egypt governed itself after the death of Cleopatra?

Anubis

Who is the god of the dead?

Anubis

Who invented mummification according to an Egyptian myth?

100 days

How long did it take to mummify a body?

Afterlife

What did Egyptian's believe in after someone had died?

Religion

What played an important part of daily life in ancient Egypt?

Gods and goddesses

Who controlled the workings of nature according to ancient Egyptians?

God or Goddess

What did each Egyptian town have their own of?

Humans with animal heads

How were the gods or goddesses of ancient Egypt depicted?

Re

Who was the sun god?

Re and Horus

Who were the two principal gods of ancient Egypt?

Amon-Re

Who was the chief god of the ancient Egyptians?

Sunrise

When was Amon-Re born each day?

Sunset

When did Amon-Re die each day?

Desert area to the west

What did ancient Egyptians believe to be the land of the dead?

Osiris

Who was the God of the living and the dead?

Isis

Who was the "Great Mother" of ancient Egypt?

Horus

Who was the son of Osiris and Isis?

Thoth

Who was God of Wisdom and Writing?

Aton

Who was the God of Sun?

Akhenaton

Which pharaoh changed his name to show his devotion to Aton?

Monotheism

What practice did the pharaoh Akhenaton promote?

Polytheism

What is the practice of believing in many gods?

Food, clothing, personal possessions

What did the souls of the dead need to survive in the afterlife?

Kings and their associates

Who could participate in the afterlife in the Old Kingdom?

Middle Kingdom

When did it become possible for anyone to look forward to an afterlife?

In the desert in shallow pits

Where were people in Egypt buried before the building of the pyramids?

Mummy

What is the preserved body of a dead person?

To receive food offerings

When would the soul of the body reture to it?

Preserved appearance of the body

How did the soul recognize it's host?

Artificial preservation of a body

What is mummification?

2 or 3 months

How long did it take to mummify a body?

Remove the organs

What is first step of mummification?

Fill body with natural salt

What is second step of mummification?

Clean and bath body with spices

What is third step of mummification?

Wrap body in linen bandages

What is last step of mummification?

3 or 4

How many coffins did pharaoh's have?

Giza

Where is the Great Pyramid?

4 triangular sides with a square base

What is shape of the Great Pyramid?

The King's Chamber

What lies at the heart of the pyramid?

A temple

Where was the pharaoh's body held before burial?

Secret tunnels

How was the burial chamber of the pyramid concealed?

Granite blocks

How was the Grand Gallery sealed off after the pharaoh was buried?

2 million stones

How many stones did it take to build the Great Pyramid?

Mud brick

What were the earliest pharaoh tombs built from?

After crowned

When did planning of a pharaoh's tomb begin?

Khufu

Who was the Great Pyramid built for?

5,000 pounds

How much did each stone of the Great Pyramid weigh?

20 years

How long could it take to build a pyramid?

West bank of the Nile

Which side of the Nile River were all pyramids built on?

It is the land of the dead

Why did they always build on the west bank of the Nile River?

Main points of the compass - north, south, east and west

How did the builders situate the four sides of the pyramid?

Stone quarries and Nubia

Where did the stone come from for the building of the pyramids?

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