bushy, branchy extension of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body
extension of a neuron, ending its branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon, generated by movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in axon's membrane
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron, tiny gap
neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and triggers muscle contraction, not enough leads to contractions or paralysis, linked to alzheimer's disease
"morphine within" natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, emotion, implicated with schizophrenia and parkinson's
fluid interior of resting axon has negatively charged ions and outside has positively charged ions
santiago ramon y cajal
described gaps between individual nerve cells and said individual neurons must function as independent agents within nervous system
sir charles sherrington
noticed a neural impulse that was taking an unexpectedly long time to travel a neural pathway (inferred there must be a brief interruption to the transmission)
a poison that can form in improperly canned food, causes paralysis by blocking ACh release from sending neuron
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
peripheral nervous system
PNS, the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
neural "cables" containing many axons, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and organs
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptor to the central nervous system
neurons that carry outgoing info from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
somatic nervous system
division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
part of peripheral nervous system that controls glands and muscles of the internal organs,
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations "FIGHT"
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy "FLIGHT"
interconnected neural cells, they can learn as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys, secrete hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress
"master gland" endocrine system's most influential gland, under the influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue, show brain ANATOMY
a technique for revealing blood flow and brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans, show brain FUNCTION
nerve network in the brain stem that plays an important role controlling arousal
brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of brain stem, directs messages to sensory receiving areas in cortex and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla
the "little brain" attached to rear of brain stem, process sensory input and coordinate movement of muscles, and balance
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brain stem and cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as food and sex (includes hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus)
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus, directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, temperature of body) linked to emotion
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres, ultimate control and information processing center
portion of the cerebral cortex lying behind forehead, involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgment, linked to personality
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear, receives sensory input for touch and body position
portion of cerebral cortex lying at back of head, includes visual areas which receive visual info from opposite visual field
portion of cerebral cortex lying roughly above ears, includes auditory areas, each of which receive auditory info primarily from opposite ear
area at front of parietal lobe that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
areas of cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions, involved in higher level mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking
controls language expression (output), an area of frontal lobe in left hemisphere, directs muscle movements involved in speech
controls language reception (input), involved in language comprehension and expressions, in left temporal lobe
brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on effects of experience on brain development
large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly corpus callosum) between them
the process by which the presynaptic terminal of a neuron reabsorbs and recycles the molecules of neurotransmitter it has previously secreted in conveying an impulse to another neuron.
Who would have been most likely to claim that a slight protrusion in a certain region of someone's skull indicated that the individual had an optimistic personality?
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:
In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.
While listening to operatic solos, musicians process the lyrics and the tunes in separate brain areas. This most clearly illustrates the functioning of different:
which test would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
The successful functioning of children who have experienced the surgical removal of an entire cerebral hemisphere best illustrates the value of:
away from, toward
An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is most directly associated with the degeneration of:
Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.
severed spinal cord
Although Ron has no genital sensations, he is capable of an erection if his genitals are stimulated. Ron's experience is most indicative of a:
The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates: