Medical Term Chapter 10

90 terms by jco888

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cerebell/o

cerbellum

cerebr/o

cerebrum

dur/o

dura mater

encephal/o

brain

gli/o

glial cells

lept/o

thin, slender

mening/o, meningi/o

membranes, meninges

my/o

muscle

myel/o

spinal cord (mean bone marrow in other contexts)

neur/o

nerve

pont/o

pons

radicul/o

nerve root (of spinal nerves)

thalam/o

thalamus

thec/o

sheath (refers to the meninges)

vag/o

vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)

alges/o, -algesia

excessive sensitivity to pain

-algia

pain

caus/o

burning

comat/o

deep sleep (coma)

esthesi/o, -esthesia

feeling, nervous sensation

kines/o, kinesi/o, -kinesa, -kinesis, -kinetic

movement

-lepsy

seizure

lex/o

word, phrase

-paresis

weakness

-phasia

speech

-plegia

paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)

-praxia

action

-sthenia

strength

syncop/o

to cut off, cut short

tax/o

order, coordination

hematoma

collections of blood

subdural hematoma

results from the tearing of veins between the dura and arachnoid membranes.

epidural hematoma

occurs between the skull and the dura as the result of a ruptured meningeal artery.

intracerebral hematoma

is cause by bleeding directly into brain tissue, such as can occur in the case of uncontrolled hypertension.

glioblastoma

a highly malignant tumor

poliomyelitis

a viral disease that affects the gray matter of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis of muscles that rely on the damaged neurons.

anesthesia

lack of normal sensation (e.g., absence of sense of touch or pain).

What is the combining form meaning nerve?

neur/o

The outer most layer of the meninges is the?

dura meter

What is the combining form meaning sensitivity to pain?

alges/o

The uppermost and largest part of the brain that controls and integrates motor, sensory, and higher mental functions is the..

cerebrum

A neurotransmitter chemical substances released at the ends of some nerve cells is...

acetylcholine

A type of neuroglial cell that transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons is a(an)?

astrocyte

What is te suffix meaning prolapse?

-ptosis

What is the suffix meaning speech?

-phasia

Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord are called...

motor nerves

What is the suffix meaning paralysis?

-plegia

What is the combining form meaning cold?

cry/o

What is the combining form meaning spinal cord?

myel/o

The part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, bodily temperature, and the secretions from the pituitary gland is the?

hypothalamus

What is the combining form meaning coordination?

tax/o

Interconnecting reservoirs or canals in the interior of the brain are called?

ventricles

What is the combining form meaning sleep?

narc/o

What is the combining form meaning nervous sensation?

esthesi/o

What is the suffix meaning strength?

-sthenia

What is the suffix meaning slight paralysis?

-paresis

What is the combining form meaning nerve root?

radicul/o

Disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system

neuropathy

Neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson disease

dopamine

Tumor (benign) of the meninges

meningloma

Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temp., and secretions from the gland

hypothalamus

Head pain; headache

cephalgia

Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness

syncope

hypothalamus contains neurons that control:

body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear and pleasure.

The thalamus plays a major role in maintaining levels of?

awareness and consciousness. It decides what is and what is not important, selectively processing and relaying sensory information to the cerebral cortex.

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

functions to coordinate voluntary movements and to maintain balance and posture.

The nervous system is divided into two major divisions:

The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system.

The central nervous system consists of the...

brain and spinal cord

The peripheral nervous system consists of...

cranial nerves and spinal nerves, plexuses, and peripheral nerves throughout the body.

plexus

a large network of nerves in the peripheral nervous system.

microscopic fiber leading from the cell body that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell...

Axon

Large, interlacing network of nerves...

Plexus

Three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord...

meninges

Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse...

dendrite

Outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter...

cerebral cortex

glial cell that transports water and salts between capillaries and nerve cells...

astrocyte

glial cell that produces myelin...

oligodendroglial cell a.k.a oligodendrocyte

A nerve cell that transmits a nerve impulse...

neuron

Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra...

cauda equina

lack of nerve strength...

neurasthenia

inability to speak..

aphasia

inability to perform purposeful actions..

apraxia

condition of insensitivity to pain...

analgesia

condition of loss of sensation...

anesthesia

sensations of tingling, numbness, or "pins and needles"..

paresthesia

lack of coordination...

ataxia

excessive movement...

hyperkinesia

abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements...

dyskinesia

reading, writing, and learning disorders

dyslexia

partial paralysis

paresis

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