Biology 1201-Ch.17 Review

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What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?

transcription

What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?

translation

What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?

RNA processing

Polypeptides are assembled from _____.

amino acids

RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.

mRNA

What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?

Transcription

DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?

Organelles

Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?

A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase

Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?

The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.

What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?

Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?

Complementary

What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?

It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.

Which of the following initially determines which DNA strand is the template strand, and therefore in which direction RNA polymerase II moves along the DNA?

the specific sequence of bases along the DNA strands

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.

modified guanine nucleotide

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.

a long string of adenine nucleotides

Spliceosomes are composed of _____.

snRNPs and other proteins

The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.

exons

Translation occurs in the _____.

cytoplasm

part of the ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis; is the most abundant form of RNA; is a component of ribosomes

rRNA

carries the genetic information from the DNA; the information specifies the sequence of amino acids in the new protein; contains exons

mRNA

interprets the information from the mRNA and brings the appropriate amino acids to the ribosome; contains an anticodon

tRNA

a faithful copy of a DNA molecule is made.

replication

the DNA "message" is copied onto a molecule of mRNA.

transcription

the information carried in the mRNA is transferred to molecules of tRNA to build a protein on the ribosomes.

translation

Where does translation take place?

Ribosome

Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein?

mRNA

Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification?

Phosphorylation

Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation?

The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex.

At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation?

A-site

What is meant by translocation?

The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA.

What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site.

P

The average length of a transcription unit along a eukaryotic DNA molecule is about 27,000 nucleotide pairs, whereas an averaged-sized protein is about 400 amino acids long. What is the best explanation for this fact?

Most eukaryotic genes and their RNA transcripts have long noncoding stretches of nucleotides that are not translated.

Which of the following is not true of RNA processing?

Exons are cut out before mRNA leaves the nucleus.

Which of the following molecules are produced by transcription?

Ribozymes and Messenger RNA

Which component is not directly involved in translation?

DNA

Which of the following mutations would be most likely to have a harmful effect on an organism?

a single nucleotide insertion downstream of, and close to, the start of the coding sequence

Which of the following statements about ribozymes is/are correct?

A ribosome can be regarded as one large ribozyme. In some genes, intron RNA functions as a ribozyme and catalyzes its own excision. Ribozymes are RNA molecules that function as enzymes.

Which of the following molecules is/are produced by translation? Include molecules that are subject to further modification after initial synthesis.

RNA polymerase and Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

Which of the following mutations would likely be most dangerous to a cell?

Deletion of one nucleotide

Which of the following is not true of a codon?

It extends from one end of a tRNA molecule.

The anticodon of a particular tRNA molecule is

complementary to the corresponding mRNA codon.

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