Assigning subjects to conditions in a random manner.
Two things can be related, but you don't know if one causes the other, or which one caused which. Some outside variable (z) can cause both X and Y.
One thing (x) causes another thing (Y). If an experimenter creates X and a correlation between X and Y is found then it is safe to say there is causation and specifically, X caused Y.
false rationale; many experiments involve deception; if deception is used, the setting must include a sensible, internally consistent pretext or rationale for the research as well as a context that both supports and enhances the collection of the data and reduces the possibility of detection.
an experimental artifact where participants form an interpretation of the experiment's purpose and unconsciously change their behavior accordingly.
an independent measure of the effectiveness of the experimental treatment. ____________ ______ are useful in providing information about the extent to which the experimental treatment had its intended effect on each individual subject.
a measure of the subject's commitment to perform a particular action without actually performing it.
an experiment is realistic if the situation is involving to the subjects, if they are forced to take it seriously, if it has impact on them.
"Realism" can refer to the extent to which events occurring in the research setting are likely to occur in the normal course of the subjects' lives, that is, in the "real world."
different experimental procedures are used to explore the same conceptual relationship. There are two properties that we demand of a series of experiments before we are convinced that we understand what the conceptual interpretation should be.
to the confidence with which we can draw cause and effect conclusions from our research results. To what extent are we certain that the independent variable, or treatment, manipulated by the experimenter is the sole source or cause of systematic variation in the dependent variable?
to the robustness of a phenomenon- the extent to which a causal relationship, once identified in a particular setting with particular research subjects, can safely be generalized to other times, places, and people.
"explains" or "is the reason for" our observed differences. It caused the observed difference in the subject's behavior.
refers to the possibility that the measurement of the dependent variable reacts with the independent variable or related events in such a way that effects are found that would not have been present otherwise. EX: some people have seen a movie designed to reduce prejudice. They may be completely unaffected by this movie until they are asked to fill out a questionnaire that clearly deals with prejudice. As a result of seeing this questionnaire, the movie goers may realize for the first time that the movie was about prejudice and may reflect on the movie in a new way that now has an influence.
researchers make these measures to prevent reactivity. Some ___________ ________ are based on observations of ongoing behavior, utilizing methods of observation that interfere minimally or not at all with the occurrence of the behavior.
whether the event in question is happening to the subject.
the subject is asked to recognize, recall, classify, or evaluate stimulus materials presented by the experimenter. In such experiments, the focus is on controlled & systematic variations in the stimulus environment. The role of the subject in this type of research is that of an observer. The stimulus control is the primary concern. The event might be important and dramatic, but it is not happening to the subject. EX: I (the subject) might read about or witness (via film) an aggressive or violent act (which might outrage me) but the violent act is not happening to me.
Difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained by a measurement
certain experimental manipulations contain a multitude of possible interpretations.
multiple conceptual replications
the experiment is conducted multiple times in different ways.
when measures in a scientific experiment show that something exists.