Identify the essential organs in the female reproductive system.
ovaries (gonads) and the ova (gametes) they produce.
Identify the accessory organs in the female reproductive system.
uterine tubes, uterus and vagina, the vulva, and mammary glands.
Describe the three layers that compose the wall of the uterus.
The three layers that compose the wall of the uterus are the inner endometrium which lines the mucous membrane. It is composed of three tissue layers itself; stratum compactum (compact-ciliated), stratum spongiosum (spongy middle), and stratum basale (dense-attaches to myometrium). Rich blood supply, this is what sloughs during menstruation, produces mucous to ward off sperm except during ovulation. Myometrium is the thick middle layer. It also has three layers in itself. Contains smooth muscle. It functions to expel a fetus for example. Perimetrium the external layer of serous membrane. It only covers one small portion of the uterus.
What are the vessels that supply blood to the uterus?
The iliac arteries branch to uterine arteries. Some blood also comes from the ovarian and vaginal arteries via anastomosis.
List the eight ligaments that hold the uterus in normal position
broad (2), uterosacral (2), round (2), posterior (1), and anterior (1)
How does the uterus serve as part of the female reproductive tract?
allows sperm from a man to ascend to the uterine tubes.
If fusion of the male and female gametes occurs the developing offspring will embed in the endometrial uterine lining.
If there is no fertilization the endometrial lining will slough away renewing itself monthly, this is menstruation.
What and where are the uterine tubes?
Uterine tubes are extensions of the uterus that communicate with the ovaries. They are located between each ovary and the uterus.
Approximately how long are the uterine tubes?
They are about 10 cm(4inches) long
What lines the uterine tubes?
A mucosal lining lines the tubes, it is continuous with that of the vagina and uterus.
The lining of the uterine tubes is continuous on their distal ends with what?
The lining of the uterine tubes is continuous on the proximal ends with what?
Trace the development of a female sex cell from its most primitive state through ovulation.
Before birth a female fetus will develop precursor cells within her ovarian tissues (oogona), they begin to undergo meiosis (number of chromosomes to half reduction). After birth she will have primary follicles within her ovaries containing an oocyte. Once a month a few will resume meiosis. Just before ovulation it again halts meiosis. There it may be expelled from the ruptured wall of the mature follicle. Meiosis will only complete if united with the male gamete (sperm).
What hormones are secreted by the cells in ovarian tissue?
During sexual intercourse the lining of the vagina lubricates and stimulates the glans penis triggering ejaculation.
It also serves as a receptacle for semen. Serves as the lower portion of the birth canal.
Is a transport of blood and tissue.
List all the structures that make up the female external genitals.
Mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, clitoris, vaginal orifice, greater vestibular glands, lesser vestibular glands.
Define the term episiotomy.
An episiotomy is a surgical incision made in the perineum to avoid partial uterine or vaginal prolapse; this use to be performed prior to first vaginal delivery.
Identify the advantages that nursing from the mother's breast provides offspring.
Nutrient rich milk for several years can be produced for the infant to consume. Provides passive immunity in the form of maternal antibodies. Enhances the emotional bond between the mother and infant. It is ready made, the perfect temperature, convenient.
What method makes it possible to measure blood levels of gonadotropins?
urine or blood tests
Describe the hormonal changes during menopause.
gonadotropins increases after age 40 while estrogen drops dramatically
Define the term mittelschmerz.
pain after ovulation