Acid fast stain
A form of differential staining used to stain bacteria that are not decolourised by acid alcohol
part of the reproduction of fungi
rapid increase or accumulation of a population of alga
a procedure using bacteria to identify potential carcinogens
the structure for motility in spirochetes
a condition where there are bacteria in the blood
A treatment that is capable of inhibiting bacterial growth
A microbial community that usually forms as a slimy layer on a surface
The protein coat of a virus that surround the nucleic acid
A protein sub unit of a virus
A sequence of 3 nucleotides in mRNA that codes for a specific amino insertion into a protein
A group of serum proteins involved in the phagocytosis and lysis of bacteria
A plasmid found in the donor cell in bacterial conjugation
The enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates to produce energy, in the absence of oxygen.
An appendage on bacteria used for attachment and motility
A gelatinous polymer surrounding a cell
The presence of immunity in host of a population
An organism that requires an organic carbon source also called an organotroph.
The first class of antibodies to appear after exposure to an antigen.
Insertion sequence - the simplest kind of transposon
A component of the gram negative cell wall also called endotoxin
A state in which phage DNA is incorporated into the host cell without lysis.
A phagocytic cell. Two types fixed and free.
An organism that grows between about 10˚ and 50˚ C
An organism that grows best in an environment with less oxygen than in normally found in air.
A mutation that results in the substitution of amino acid in a protein.
The number of people affected by a disease in a given population.
Negative RNA virus
Anti sense, carriers RNA polymerase uses antisense strand to replicate
A base substitution that results in a nonsense codon.
Also called Microbiota. The microorganisms the colonize a host without causing disease.
An infection that develops during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at the time the patient was admitted.
Immunity acquired by transfer from another person.
The structure of a bacterial cell containing NAG and NAM
A method of identifying bacteria using specific strains of bacteriophages.
The evolutionary history of a group of organisms.
An infectious agent consisting of a self replicating protein, with no nucleic acid.
Phage DNA inserted into the host cells DNA
An organism that cannot grow above 20˚C.
An organism that can grow between 0˚ and 30˚C.
Resistance factor - a bacterial plasmid carrying a genes that determine resistance to antibiotics.
An antigen on human blood cells. Named after Rhesus monkey.
A culture medium designed suppress the growth of unwanted microbes and encourage the growth of wanted ones.
The presence of a toxin of or pathogenic organism in the blood and tissue.
The proliferation of pathogens in the blood, accompanied with fever, can cause organ damage.
A mutation that does not alter the AA sequence of a protein.
The process of transferring a piece of DNA adjacent to prophage to another cell
A distinct component of something.
A vaccine consisting of a antigenic fragment.
Cell mediated immunity is based on the stimulation of specialized lymphocytes - T-cells.
A polysaccharide found in gram positive cell walls.
An organism that's optimum growth is between 50˚ and 60˚C heat loving.
transposable elements - mobile genetic elements.
A preparation of Killed, inactive or attenuated microorganisms or toxoids used to induce artificially acquired immunity.
The presence of viruses in the blood
Infectious RNA tightly bound to prevent destruction.
The transfer of a disease that primarily occurs in an animal population to humans.
acts against β-lactam ring found in penicillin based antibiotics.
a single flagellum at one pole of the cell
a single flagellum at both poles of the cell
two or more flagella at one pole of the cell
flagella distributed over he entire cell
Heart damage and or damage to nerves controlling digestive system.
Malaria leads to the destruction of liver and RBC
Transmission by under cooked food. Cysts develop in eye, brain and other tissues. Is a teratogen.
is an infectious protein, they are transmissible by ingestion transplant and surgery
the transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another. Can only occur in closely related bacteria. This process allows for genetic engineering through recombination.
the bacteria packs the genetic material into a bacteria phage that is released and then will re-infect a specific target cell
material is passed through a sex pilus formed between two bacterial cells one must contain F+ factor the other F-.
host microbe symbiotic relationships Humans and
cyanobacteria and fungus
host microbe symbiotic relationships Giant clam and
Chemical 4 energy
Chemical 4 energy use organic compounds
Light 4 energy
require oxygen to survive.
grow best in presence of oxygen, but can survive and grow in absence of oxygen
unable to survive in presence of oxygen
cannot use oxygen for growth but can grow and survive in air.
require low concentration of oxygen (less than that of air). Most cannot survive without oxygen, or in air.
Escherichia coli. (E. coli.) -
0157 strain cause foodborne disease. Is able to survive in water. Route of infection is fecal oral.
causes typhoid fever. Virulence mechanisms involve infection of the macrophage and using it to multiply.
Caused bubonic and pneumonic plague. Is transmitted by flea bites
the ability to attach to host tissues
are produced inside gram positive bacteria and released into surrounding medium
the removal of microorganisms from food by heat
removal of common vegetative microorganisms by treatment with chemicals or radiation
the removal of microorganisms from living tissue by chemical means.
removal of microorganisms by physical means eg. Alcohol swap.
infects the meninges that protect the brain, trauma or inflammation allows the commonly present, bacteria to pass the blood brain barrier, bind to surface adhesions
effects the motor neurones, virus by the ingestion of the virus in feces contaminated water or food, It can penetrate the capillary wall and has a high affinity for motor nerve cells
Malaria, Destruction of the RBC and liver, parenteral injury from mosquito, duplicates intracellular and lyses the cells
Rolling circle replication
Conjugative. used plasmids of gram positive bacteria
Theta Type replication
Vegetative. is bidirectional and is used by the plasmids of gram negative bacteria
1. Isolate agent of disease from infected tissue.
2. Purify in culture
3. Re-create the disease in a healthy animal using purified agent.
4. Demonstrate that re-created disease is due to the same agent.
physical barrier. Skin, mucous and flushing.
2nd Non-specific immunity
general response phagocytosis, inflammation and fever. Leucocytes
specific immune response. Production of specific antibodies and lymphocytes.
the minor change in one of the antigens due to mutation
major change of one or both antigens due to re-assortment of genes
Anthrax. endospore forming bacillus, large gram +ve capsule forming. Found in soil.
Spongiform encephalopathies caused by