keeping a balance between internal and external environments. Example: your body shivers to keep warm, but also perspires (sweats) to keep cool, maintaining a balanced body temperature.
the movement of molecules from high to low concentration (molecules spread out for space).
the movement of water molecules from high to low concentration.
Water will move towards the highest concentration of salt, because it is moving from high water to low water concentration (and low water is where there is high salt!)
When do cells swell?
Cells will swell if they gain water, and shrink if they lose water!
when energy from ATP is used to move molecules from low concentration to high! Basically, the molecules are forced to move to a more crowded space with ATP!
Difference in concentration
determines how fast and how much water or salt will move.
(HIGH ACIDIC) 1 ------------- (NEUTRAL) 7 ------------ (HIGH BASE) 14
speed up chemical reactions (sometimes stated as "altering" or "increasing" the rate)
How do enzymes work?
Different enzymes work at a different optimal (best) temperature or pH.
What happens to enzymes during high temperatures?
Enzymes can be denatured (change shape) because of high temperatures or low pH (acid)
What is attached to the enzyme?
The substrate attaches to the enzyme, where it is converted into the product(s)
How have scientists described enzymes? Why?
Scientists have described enzymes as a lock and key because they are specific to only one type of reaction and they are re-useable without having to be made new each time.
Can be denatured (change shape) because of high temperatures or low pH (acid)