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common impulse

optimistic faith in human nature

utopian communities

Idealistic and impractical communities. Who, Rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world to work their miracles in microcosm, hoping to imitate the elect state of affairs that existed among the Apostles.

Owenites

Experiments that have values typical of Robert Owen. He believed the experiments should be villages of cooperation in which every resident worked and lived in total equality.

Shakers

dancing to free themselves of sin, celibacy
accumulated via adoption and converts

Oneida

purity of heart, sinlessness, opposite of celibacy, monogomy was bad

common vision

communal societies
social harmony
narrowing gap between rich and poor
gender equality

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

transcendentalists

Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.

temperance movement

campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

Asylums

mental hospitals started at the end of the sixteenth century. began as places for people who had had mental breakdowns - turned into prisons for the insane.

Horace Mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

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