The process emerges from the need to cooperate with others on complex, difficult, or multiple tasks to acheive common objectives of an organization,community, or socity.
It is an essential planning tool tied to the established goals and objectives developed as alternative courses of action.
are deprciable assets.
is applicable in the private as well as the public sectors.
the response to an accident requiring basic first aidmay be relatively simple, while a response to an environmental disaster may be very detailed and complex.
Provides a useful decision making tool when one considers the commitment of funds or other resources.
Crime Preventitive through Environmental Design (CPTED)
is based on the theory that the environment can be protected, and crime prevented, through the proper design of facilities and communities.
The Delphi Technique involves a process through which several individuals or exports provide input on a given issue an ultimately arrive at consenus on a pridiction or list of needs and priorities (Bunning, 1979).
exists when threat conditions fluctuate.
elements of planning
The elements of planning include a needs (or risk )assessment the developement of alternative courses of action, and selection of an action plan.
Acheiving execellent performance in any organization involves special attention in the evaluation process.
indemity / hold harmless clause
Through an indemnity/hold harmless clause, the contractee is held harmless in the event of a wrongful act by a contract employee.
these risks are unavoidable because of the nature of the business, such as tranportation and mining.
relate to human characteristics that are difficult to measure.
line item budget
includes a description of items and the cost of each item.
category of the budget includes any item not approprietly placed in one of the other categories.
are quantifiable, such as the amount of crime reduction or number of personnel who successfully complete a training program.
objective (quantitive) measures
include the use of audits, marketing, operations research, incident and statistical reports, threat assessment, investigations, risk analysis, inspections, and security (loss prevention) surveys.
A static risk is constant and unchanging.
is long range and involves implementation over a period of years.
subjective (qualitative) measure
include the use of forecasting, employee surveys, expert opinion and the Delphi technique.
supplies and materials expenses
include objects with an expected life of one year or more.
is short range and scheduled to be implemented within a short time frame.
include such items such as rent utilities, contract services, training insurance, professional fees, pre-emplyment screening, and professional organizations.
includes measurable units tied to objectives that allow for a cost-benifit analysis by program type.
associated with salaries and wages, including statutorily mandated payroll taxes, discretionary personnel- related exspenses such as health insurance and retirement, and overpay for hourly employees.
All planning processes include at least three common elements.
is a general statement describing how anticipated situations should be handled.
The characteristics of private administration include the following: Private enterprise: Private or corporate ownership: Competitiveness: Profit incentive: Financing regulated by market price: Privacy of information and records (within limits): Accountability to owners and stockholders: Some freedom in selection and termination of employees: Freedom to regulate work methods and organization.
outlines a seris of steps to be followed consistently in a definite order.
The characteristics of public administation include being the following: Public affairs-oriented: Impartial and fair: Apolitical: Public-service oriented: Publicaly funded: Publicaly documented: Accountable to the public: Selectively staffed (civil service): Hierarchial.
exists when there is a potential for injury, damage, or loss with no possibe benefit.
continuous quality improvement, and total quality management (TQM) Initiatives involve approaches of administration that attept to maximize effectiveness of an organization through the continual improvement of the quality of its people, processes, products, and environment.
quality assurance initiative
involve goal setting, trust, cohesiveness, increasing information flow, and resolving conflict.
on the other hand, may be used several times.
return on investment(ROI)
the cost-benifit analysis can assist with the calculation of the return on the investment(ROI) of security-related expenditures.
may be defined as the possibility of suffering harm or loss, exposure to the probability of loss or damage, an element of uncertainty, or the possibility that results of an action may be consistent with the planned or expected outcomes.
involves a critical, objective analysis of an organization's entire protective system.
risk management techniques
involve elimination of the risk if possible, reducing the probability that a loss will occur, and mitigating the damage if a threat materializes.
is used to evaluate a entire organization to identify risks and security defencies.
is used once and no longer needed when the objectives of the plan are accomplished.
exists when there is a potential for benifit or loss, depending on the consrquences of an activity or inactivity.
are quite clear,specific, identifiable, and generally measurable.
is a simple percentage increase over the last budget.
the vac refers to those anticipated threats that do not materialize because of the security program.
each program within a budget period must justify its existence and expenditures.