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The output energy of all receptors is a type of ___ energy


The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change
specifically called a/an

receptor potential.

What is a sensation?

a subjective awareness of a stimulus

Changes in cerebrospinal fluid pH are detected by


Changes in blood pressure are detected by ___ in arteries.


You can smell the fragrance of your deodorant when you just put it on, but after a little
while the smell fades. What explains this phenomenon?

the phasic nature of the sense of smell

This organ does not have nociceptors.


Pain, heat and cold are detected by

free nerve endings.

These are all analgesics naturally occurring in the central nervous system except


Most second-order somesthetic neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the


These structures are all involved with spinal gating of pain signals except

lower motor neurons.

This figure shows the structure of a taste bud. Which cell produces a receptor potential?


What structure is visible to the naked eye?

lingual papilla

What taste sensation is associated with the taste produced by amino acids such as aspartic
and glutamic acid?


Pheromones stimulate

olfactory cells.

The primary olfactory cortex is located in the

temporal lobe.

___ is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first
through the thalamus.


Infrasonic frequencies below ___ Hz are not detected by the ear, whereas ultrasonic
frequencies above ___ Hz are inaudible vibrations.

20; 20,000

This figure shows the internal anatomy of the ear. Which structure belongs to the inner


This figure shows the internal anatomy of the ear. What does "7" represent?

the cochlea

This figure shows the internal anatomy of the ear. What does "3" represent?

the incus

This figure shows the spiral organ (organ of Corti). Which is the structure acting as a transducer?


The structure shown in this figure is located within which of the following structures?

Cochlear duct

Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the
tympanic cavity?

the auditory (eustachian) tube

Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following the pathway:

tympanic membrane → auditory canal → ossicles → oval window → cochlear duct →
spiral organ → fibers of cochlear nerve

Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?
A. the ossicles

cochlear hair cells

Each upward movement of the _____ causes the stereocilia of the inner hair cells to bend,
opening ___ gates.

basilar membrane; K+

A 100 dB sound (loud) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause the

basilar membrane to vibrate vigorously near its distal end.

When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this
movement by means of your

semicircular ducts.

When you travel in an elevator, the ___ senses when the elevator is moving.

hair cells of the otolithic membrane of the macula sacculi

The crista ampullaris is associated with

dynamic equilibrium related to angular acceleration.

The ___ do/does not contribute to the sense of equilibrium.

vallate papillae

This figure shows a sagittal section of the eye. What does "2" represent?

the choroid

This figure shows a sagittal section of the eye. Which structure does not have a numbered

the lens

This figure shows a schematic of the layers of the retinal cells. What does "5" represent?

bipolar cell

Human vision is limited to wavelengths ranging from ___ nm.

400 to 700

These are all accessory structures of the eye except

the cornea

The ___ is not an optic component of the eye.


Glaucoma is a state of elevated pressure within the eye that occurs when the ___ is
obstructed so the ___ is not reabsorbed as fast as it is secreted.

scleral venous sinus; aqueous humor

Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the ___ and exit the eye by way of
the optic nerve.

blind spot

When you view objects close to the eye, the eye makes an adjustment called


A/An ___ eye does not need a corrective lens to focus the image.


___ are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color) vision.


This figure shows the metabolism of a visual pigment. Which steps represent bleaching?

1, 2, 3, and 4

The fact that cones exhibit less neuronal convergence than rods do is part of the reason

photopic (day) vision has higher resolution than scotopic (night) vision.

___ are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials.

Ganglion cells

The duplicity theory of vision holds that

a single type of receptor system cannot produce both high sensitivity and high resolution.

The first-order neurons in the visual pathway are

the bipolar cells of the retina

Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate in the ___ before reaching the visual

optic chiasm

Adjustment to close-range vision involves all of the following except

light adaptation.

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