Chapter 17

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Endocrine gland(s)

release their secretions directly into the blood.

The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts
_____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine
system.

quickly; quickly; specific

__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue,
and stimulate their physiology.

Paracrines

This figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. What does "1" represent?

the pineal gland

This figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. Which structure secretes
growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)?

3

The ___ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function.

kidney

What makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?

the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone

The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secrets

oxytocin (OT).

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the

anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis).

The hypophyseal portal system connects

the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus.

These are all hypothalamic hormones except

luteinizing hormone (LH).

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the

kidneys.

___ has more target cells in the body than any of the others.

Growth hormone (GH)

Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via

negative feedback inhibition

The infundibulum is

a projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs.

___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is

Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Negative feedback inhibition occurs when

thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary.

This figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone
stimulates glucocorticoids secretion?

8

This figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone is
not a tropin?

5

This hormone plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the
cycle of daylight and darkness.

melatonin

The ___ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs
and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).

thymus

The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness
and quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.

thyroid gland

The ___ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia

parathyroid glands

The ___ secrete(s) ___, which promotes Na+ and water retention.

adrenal cortex; aldosterone

The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes

cortisol.

Many hours after a meal, alpha (α) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
secrete

glucagon, which raises blood glucose.

These are all secreted by the pancreas except

somatotropin (growth hormone).

This gland has both endocrine and exocrine function.

the ovary

___ is not a steroid hormone.

Insulin

___ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Glucagon

Absence of iodine in the diet leads to

hypothyroidism.

T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.

monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

___ enters the target cell's nuclei and acts directly on the genes.

Estrogen

This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a
second messenger.

enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases

Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of

enzyme amplification.

This figure shows

modulation of target cell sensitivity by down-regulation.

Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate
significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some
300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies

the synergistic effect.

The resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by

cortisol.

During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress
overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that

energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism.

Cortisol

promotes breakdown of fat and protein.

The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.

the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine

Eicosanoids are derived from

arachidonic acid

Prostaglandins have all the following roles except

to stop fever and pain.

Aspirin and ibuprofen block

the action of cyclooxygenase.

Diabetes insipidus is caused by

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion.

All these can cause Cushing syndrome except

hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla.

Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but
it is more likely to cause ___ when it begins in adulthood.

acromegaly

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except

hypoglycemia.

These statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except

both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to polyuria and
dehydration?

hyperglycemia → glucose enters renal tubules → glucose transport maximum exceeded →
glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid → osmotic diuresis

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