The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts
_____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine
quickly; quickly; specific
__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue,
and stimulate their physiology.
This figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. What does "1" represent?
the pineal gland
This figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. Which structure secretes
growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)?
What makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
The hypophyseal portal system connects
the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus.
___ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is
Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
This figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone
stimulates glucocorticoids secretion?
This figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone is
not a tropin?
This hormone plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the
cycle of daylight and darkness.
The ___ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs
and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).
The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness
and quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.
Many hours after a meal, alpha (α) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
glucagon, which raises blood glucose.
T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a
enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of
Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate
significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some
300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
the synergistic effect.
During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress
overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism.
The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.
the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine
Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but
it is more likely to cause ___ when it begins in adulthood.
These statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except
both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.