The Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632).
The father of monotheism. He wants to be immortal by passing down his DNA to a son, and thus has Isaac and Ishmael. To prove his allegiance/belief in one god he is asked to sacrifice his favorite son. At the last minute Gabriel replaces the son with a lamb from God.
The son of Abraham and Sarah and believed to be the son Abraham chose to sacrifice in Judaism and Christianity. He also has sons Jacob and Esau (twins), and Jacob leads to the 12 tribes of Israel.
The son of Abraham and Hagar (Sarah's servant) and believed to be the son Abraham chose to sacrifice in Islam. He later becomes the father of the main Arabic tribes, which Muhammad descends from.
Sarah's servant. She has a child with Abraham (Ishmael) because Abraham fails to impregnate Sarah successfully.
Abraham's wife. After Ishmael is born, she gives birth to Isaac.
He accompanies Muhammad during the Hijrah and later becomes the first caliph.
He is mentioned throughout Islam for various things, among them being the angel who came to Muhammad and told him that God had chosen him. He also appears during the Sa'i.
Four rightly-guided caliphs
Abu Bakr (632-4). He stopped the rebellion and united Arabia.
Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-44). He spread Islam to the Middle East via wars.
Uthman ibn Affan (644-56). He expanded the empire to North Africa and central Asia, but with much political cost. He also standardized the Koran.
Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-61). He ruled for the first civil war but was known more for who he was than what he did.
They all helped spread Muhammad's teachings after his death.
12 Arabian tribes
Several tribes that originated from Ishmael's side of the family, and from which Muhammad is descended.
12 tribes of Israel
Several tribes that originated from Isaac's side of the family, and from which Moses and Jesus are descended.
Prophets according to Islam
Adam -> Noah -> Abraham -> Moses -> Jesus -> Muhammad.
Muhammad is called the "seal of the prophet", ash e is the final prophet in Islam.
A religious teacher who is believed to speak for God/due to divine inspiration.
The monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran.
Muslim name for the one and only God - the same God, with a different name, is found in Christianity and Judaism as well.
A believer or follower of Islam - it means "one who has submitted".
A leader of prayer in a mosque.
The civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth.
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
A member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs.
The center of Muslims in Islam. It represents one god and is worshipped. It was built by Adam and rebuilt by Abraham, with black stone from heaven. Muhammad got rid of the idols here and restored monotheism. Muslims turn in its direction while praying.
One of the steps of the Hajj in which all the Muslims circle the Kaaba seven times counterclockwise, in unison.
A 7,000 ft black drape that covers the Ka'aba, with gold thread (because of passage in the Koran), that is 1 ton and costs 5 million dollars to make.
The stoning of Satan in which, during the Hajj, pilgrims throw stones at the three pillars that mark the spots where Abraham stood his ground, challenged by Satan not to sacrifice his son.
The state of cleanliness a pilgrim must enter into before making pilgrimage; it consists of everybody wearing the same simple robe.
A body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Koran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life. It dictates how a Muslim should live and regulates family life, morals, business, and community life, and unites all Muslims.
The sacred writings of Islam as revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina. It is considered only to be accurate in Arabic; it doesn't have the same meaning/power if it's in a different language.
(661-750) The first ruling dynasty over the Muslim Caliphate. They moved the Muslim capital to Damascus, away from Mecca, making it easier to control conquered territories. They allowed Jews and Christians to continue their religions and didn't force them to convert. They also standardized money.
(750-1258) The dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad to rule the Muslim caliphate. They were the most powerful group and took control of the empire, murdering the remaining members of the Umayyad family. They moved the capital to Baghdad and flourished. They created the postal system and made all government in Arabic.
Dome of the Rock
Muhammad goes to this rock in Jerusalem at night in the 620s. Gabriel comes and lifts him into heaven, where he can pray with Jesus and Moses, solidifying his belief. It is also the rock where Abraham almost sacrificed his son in Judaism.
A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, established by the Berbers in the eighth century A.D.
What are the characteristics of pre-Islamic Arabia that helped lead to the rise of Islam?
Give an overview of Muhammad's early life including dates.
570 - Muhammad born in Mecca (southern Arabia), far from centers of trade/art/learning. His father died before his birth, and his mother died when he was 6. He lived with his grandfather until his death when Muhammad was 8.
595 - Muhammad married happily to Khadija, a wealthy 40-year-old widowed merchant.
Give an overview of what happened to end his life in Mecca including dates.
610 - Muhammad began to feel burdened by world issues. He went to contemplate/meditate in a cave, when Gabriel says that Muhammad has been chosen by Allah to proclaim about Islam. Khadija encourages this.
613 - After preaching only to close friends for awhile, he began preaching in public and slowly gained converts.
622 - Fearing for his safety from Meccan authorities who disapproved of him, he fled 200 miles north with his friend Abu Bakr to Medina, a journey called the Hijrah.
What happened in Medina that furthered Islam and Muhammad's reign?
Muhammad was much more accepted there and he was soon offered a position of political power. Thus, he became an absolute ruler as he acquired more and more influence. The last two and a half years of his life brought rapid conversion.
Define and describe the 5 Pillars of Islam.
1. Shahada - the declaration of faith in which you acknowledge that there is only one God (Allah) and one prophet (Muhammad).
2. Salat - prayer in which everybody washes, all businesses close, and everybody prays towards Mecca on mats. The "meuzzin" conducts the prayer by calling it from a high tower called a minaret. This happens five times a day: dawn, noon, late afternoon, sunset, and before bed.
3. Zakat - giving of alms, or the giving of 2.5% of your income to charity. This isn't upsetting because Muslims believe that all belongings are truly owned by God, including money.
4. Sawm - fasting during Ramadan for one month, in which there is no food or drink from sunrise to sunset.
5. Hajj - the journey to Mecca, made at least once in your lifetime; after it's completed you can add "Hajji" or "Hajja" to your name.
List and explain the steps of the Hajj.
-Ihram, the cleansing/purification of all Muslims before attending the Hajj
-Tawaf, the circling of the Ka'aba seven times
-Sa'i, the running between hills to symbolize Sarah's search for water
-Jamarat (in the Valley of Mina, where all the tents are), the ritual stoning of Satan
Why was Al-Andalus so important for future European advancement?
It brought tons of technology that would never have reached Europe otherwise.
Name three inventions that came from Al-Andalus to Christian Europe.
Hospitals, surgery, windmills, among other agricultural achievements.
What are the characteristics of Islamic artwork and their significance?
What do Christianity and Judaism have to do with Islam?
They all have a prophet whose words create a divine work of writing (the Koran, Torah, and Bible). They all descended from Abraham. They all believe in the same one God, called different names (Allah, Elohim, God).
Why did/does Islam spread so quickly?
Islam spread mainly through conquests. After Muhammad gained a large amount of followers, he trained the Bedouins to unite through Islam, and as they conquered land after land, conversions happened all over the place.
What are the top five most widely followed religions in the world?
1. Christianity (33%)
2. Islam (21%)
3. Nonreligious (16%)
4. Hinduism (14%)
5. Buddhism (6%)
When did the split between Sunni and Shia begin?
Under the Ummayad's rule, some Muslims didn't comply. This was when the Shi'a and Sunni split. The Shi'a considered themselves a "party" of Ali, saying that he was the rightful successor to Muhammad, while the Sunni were people who followed Muhammad's examples and acknowledged the first four caliphs as rightful successors.
What effects does the split between Sunni/Shia have on modern Islam today?
Even today, the split remains. Countries have more Sunni people than Shi'a, but the Shi'a still maintain their beliefs.