Christmas pardons (1868)
Christmas pardons were rebel leaders. Given their name, because they were pardoned by president Johnson around Christmas time in 1868
Conventions of Freedmen
black-assembled groups to fight for real freedom
American Missionary Association
One thing that former slaves thirsted for most was religion, and they began forming their own churches. Because of this, many of them desired literacy in order to read the Bible. Black schools were established with some black teachers and some white teachers, primarily female from this association. There not enough teachers to meet demands, so eventually the government had to step in. It was one of the first steps toward racial equality.
Freedman's Bureau (1865-1872)
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools for the freed African American slaves
Gen. Oliver O. Howard
Union general who headed the Freedmen's Bureau
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
10 Percent Reconstruction Plan (1863)
Introduced by President Lincoln, it proposed that a state be readmitted to the Union once 10 percent of its voters had pledged loyalty to the United States and promised to honor emancipation.
Wade-Davis Bill (50%)
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
when a president kills a bill passed during the last 10 days Congress is in session by simply refusing to act on it
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan (May 1865)
Each remaining Confederate state could be readmitted to the Union if they would withdraw its secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debts, and ratify the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
Small farmers and tenants who live and work on someone else's land.
Civil Rights Bill (1866)
Gave blacks citizenship, and struck at black codes, vetoed by Johnson, later made into 14th ammendment, it gave civil rights, but not voting, reduced the representation of a state in congress and in Electoral college if it denied suffrage, and disdqualified former confederates from holding office, repudiated confederate debt
made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country, the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
1866 congressional elections
During the elections, Republicans made sure that any ex-Confederate state that ratified the 14th Amendment would be declared "reconstructed" and its representatives and senators would be seated in Congress. Only Tennessee. Johnson created a National Union Party. Not successful. Republicans swept the elections
Sen. Charles Sumner
Massachusetts statesman who insisted southern plantations be broken up, attacked by sc rep preston brooks
Rep. Thaddeus Stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
imposed martial law on the south; also called for new state constitutional conventions and forced the states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates. Also required each state to ratify the 14th amendment
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Ex parte Mulligan (1866)
Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2 (1866), was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional
Southerners had reorganized their governments and were granted their rights again
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
a pro Union organization based in the North and was assisted by northern blacks; this political network educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Republican candidates; they built black churches and schools and fought to protect black communities from white retaliation
Hiram Revels/Blanche Bruce
Revels and Bruce were the first two African-American politicians to serve a full term in the United States Senate. They were both representatives from Mississippi, and were the only two African-American Senators during Reconstruction.
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Force Acts (1870- 1871)
gave power to federal authorities to stop KKK violence and to protect civil rights of citizens in the South
the use of legal means to block blacks from voting
Tenure of Office Act (1867)
It was a measure passed by Congress in 1867 that prohibited the president from dismissing anyone whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. Passed because Johnson would violate it, it started the impeachment crisis.
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.
Rep. Benjamin F. Butler
Union general who gave blacks freedom in conquered areas before Emancipation
he intentionally violates Tenure Act because it was set upt to get him impeached by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stantin, at the Trial his lawyer says his only crime is opposing Congress, 12 democrats and 7 republicans vote him "not guilty", so he escaped impeachment by one vote
Sen. Ben Wade
Leader of the radicals in Senate. Almost became president
Alaska purchase (1867)
From Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. The territory purchased was about 600,000 square miles (1,600,000 km²) of the modern state of Alaska.
many criticized William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars, calling it his folly.