← Biology Vocabulary 10 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Metaphase One of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator. Anaphase A phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate. Telophase The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes. Cell Plate The precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two. Synapsis The pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Tetrad The four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis. Crossing-over The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination. Genetic Recombination The regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents. Independent Assortment the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes. Spermatogenesis The process by which male gametes form. Oogenesis The production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum. Polar Body A short-lived product of the formation of gametes by meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite. Genetics The science of heredity and of the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring. Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring. Trait A genetically determined variant of a characteristic. Pollination The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures (the anthers) to the tip of a female reproductive structure (the pistil) of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms. Self-pollination The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant. Cross-pollination A reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant. True-breeding Describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for a trait.