ch 9

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In her research, Professor Kyoto seeks to identify circumstances in which confirmation bias is especially likely to impede effective problem solving. Which specialty area does her research best represent?

cognitive psychology

Arnold had difficulty recognizing that bullfighting was a sport because it failed to resemble his ________ of a sport.

prototype

In attempting to find and purchase high-quality cosmetics, Megan reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of:

heuristic

Because he erroneously believes that older workers are not as motivated as younger workers to work hard, a factory foreman is especially vigilant for any signs of laziness among his senior workers. His supervision strategy best illustrates:

confirmation bias

A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of:

the representativeness heuristic

Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit:

overconfidence

When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judy's reaction best illustrates:

belief perseverance

Vocal sounds that are not included in one's native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development.

babbling

Exposure to language during a critical period is conducive for effectively establishing the settings of a child's:

language acquisition device

During a lecture, your professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun "he" is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of:

language on thinking.

We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.

prototype

To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of

an algorithm

Max is so used to thinking that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others that he fails to recognize that the most effective way to impress his girlfriend is with cooperative tenderness. Max's oversight best illustrates

a fixation

Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates

functional fixedness

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of

the availability heuristic

Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's research proposal remained almost as negative as it was originally. This best illustrates

belief perseverance.

Students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of

framing

The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months.

24

In which of the following parts of the brain would a lesion most likely result in aphasia?

Wernicke's area

Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates

linguistic determinism

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