involves the presentation of a stimuli after a behavior occurs, increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
removal of a stimuli once a behavior has occured, In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state.
examples of negative reinforcement
daughter losing cell phone privileges after being late to school
chocoate results in the child stopping crying
clicking the seatbelt removes the buzzer
difference between reinforcement and puinshment
not whether it is pleasant of unpleasant; it it whether the goal is to increase (reinforcement) or to decrease (punishment) the likelihood of a behavior occurring.
aka as punishment. , We add an undesirable stimulus to get a behavior to stop
Ex. dog pees on the bathroom floor, owner hits, dog no longer does it
example of positive punishment
avoiding being late for school so that you dont have to serve detention.
example of negative punishment
husband stops teasing his wife after she gives him the silent treatment
what is shaping
learning procedure that uses reinforcement to guide a response in closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior.
Watson's white rat experiment conditioned Little Albert to fear not only rat but other furry, white objects. This is an ex. of
gambling and lottery games are example of a reward based on a
variable ratio schedule. Response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
avoidance learning is the process
an individual learns a respose to avoid a stressful or unpleasant situation. In other words, the reinforcement is the absence of the punishment.
an example of avoidance learning in humans
the situation when a person avoids a yard where there is a barking dog.
sheilding your eyes in the sunlight