2 kinds of reinforcements
positive and negative
involves the presentation of a stimuli after a behavior occurs, increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
example of positive reinforcement
getting a paycheck after going to work
negative reinforcement also called
removal of a stimuli once a behavior has occured, In operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event or state.
examples of negative reinforcement
daughter losing cell phone privileges after being late to school
chocoate results in the child stopping crying
clicking the seatbelt removes the buzzer
difference between reinforcement and puinshment
not whether it is pleasant of unpleasant; it it whether the goal is to increase (reinforcement) or to decrease (punishment) the likelihood of a behavior occurring.
what type of modes works best in addiction treatment settings?
founder of operant conditioning theory
avoidance learning also called
aka as punishment. , We add an undesirable stimulus to get a behavior to stop
Ex. dog pees on the bathroom floor, owner hits, dog no longer does it
example of positive punishment
avoiding being late for school so that you dont have to serve detention.
following an undesired response by removing a pleasant stimulus
example of negative punishment
husband stops teasing his wife after she gives him the silent treatment
what is shaping
learning procedure that uses reinforcement to guide a response in closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior.
what is a fixed-interval schedule
schedule of reinforcement, i.e. every 45 minutes
Watson's white rat experiment conditioned Little Albert to fear not only rat but other furry, white objects. This is an ex. of
gambling and lottery games are example of a reward based on a
variable ratio schedule. Response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
mowrer's 2 factor learning also called
Avoidance learning involves 2 processes:
classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning
avoidance learning is the process
an individual learns a respose to avoid a stressful or unpleasant situation. In other words, the reinforcement is the absence of the punishment.
an example of avoidance learning in humans
the situation when a person avoids a yard where there is a barking dog.
sheilding your eyes in the sunlight
the avoidance response in Mowrers theory is reinforced through
operant conditioning operates on the
environment and is maintained by its consequences
behaviors conditioned via classical conditioning procedures are not maintained by