AFFECTIVE. Foundation of ESL education, types of programs, factors that affect learning, Cultural Awareness, Family and Community Involvement.
FOUNDATION. The ESL teacher understands the foundation of ESL Education and types of ESL Programs (self-contained, pull-out, newcomer centers, dual language, immersion). (Pull-out programs are the least effective model).
MULTICULTURAL. The ESL teacher understands factors that affect ESL students learning (age, developmental characteristics, academic strengths and needs, preferred learning styles, personality, sociocultural factors, home environment, attitde, exceptionalities), and implements strategies for creating effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment. Knows factors that contribute to cultural bias (stereotyping, prejudice, ethnocentrism). Demonstrates sensitivity to students diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds and shows respect for language differences. Creates student awareness of and respect for linguistic and cultural diversity.
INVOLVEMENT. The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education. Applies knowledge of strategies advocating educational and social equity for ESL students (participating in LPAC and Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) meetings, serving on Site-Based Decision Making committees, serving as a resource for teachers). Understands the importance of family involvement, communicates effectively with the parents/guardians and knows how community members and resources can positively affect learning and is able to access those resources.
When is an English as a Second Language (ESL) Program required?
All LEP students for whom a district is not required to offer a Bilingual education program shall be provided an ESL program, regardless of the students' grade levels and home language, and regardless of the number of students.
When is a Bilingual Program required?
Each school district which has an enrollment of 20 or more limited English proficient students (LEP) of the same language classification in the same grade level district-wide shall offer a bilingual education program for LEP students in Pre-K to grade 5. Grade 6 shall be included when clustered with the elementary grades.
Requires instruction to be based on research. Requires ongoing professional development for all teachers who work with English language learners. Allows districts to use the students' native language to facilitate their academic achievement. Requires gains in student achievement within four years or districts must revamp their programs.
Composition of the LPAC
A campus administrator, professional bilingual educator, a professional transtional language educator (a bilingual teacher or ESL teacher), a parent of a limited English proficient student or representative (not employed by the school district or charter school). Must have at least 4 members at the meeting.
This program utilizes the native language for content area instruction while the child is also learning English. The native language is used to make content comprehensible to the student.
This program utilizes methodology and instructional strategies and use English as the primary language of instruction. Multiple language groups can be instructed in this environment due to the use of English as the common language of instruction. All models use the ESL language arts TEKS to develop oral language and academic skills through special methodologies and strategies by ESL certified teachers. Mastery of English listening, reading and writing is required.
Bilingual Program Models
Two-Way Dual Language Program (additive-adding another language), Developmental (late exit) Bilingual Education (semi-additive), Transitional (early exit) (subtractive-taking away to soon).
Least effective. Students leave their English only classroom to spend part of the day with ESL instruction.
English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) I and II
For immigrants as a substitute for I and II in High School (these students must also take and pass English III and IV for graduation credit).
An approach to instruction and classroom management that teachers can use to help English language learners acquire and learn English and content area knowledge and skills.
Characteristics of Sheltered Language
Comprehensible input, affective environments, high levels of student interaction, including small group and cooperative learning, student-centered, more hands-on task, careful comprehensive planning.
The Permissive Period
Before WWI, lingustic diversity was generally accepted and the presence of different languages was encouraged.
The Restrictive Period
In the first two decades of the 20th century, the number of immigrant students in public schools increased dramatically. In 1919, a resolution was adopted recommending all states to prescribe that all schools should develop instruction in English. Linguistic diversity was replaced by lingustic intolerance.
Restrictive Period - Early Beginnings
The method of instruction for the language minority students was English immersion, which has come to be known as the sink or swim approach. Students not able to speak English were placed in Special Ed. classes. Teachers in 1925 were prohibited from teaching in a language other than English. The English only policy was repelled with the passage of the state law making bilingual education permissive in 1969.
The Opportunity Period
In 1957, US competence to compete in international world promoted bilingualism. In 1958, The National Defense and Education Act was passed, promoting foreign language learning in elementary, high schools and universities. In 1964, the Civil Rights Act symbolized a change in a less negative attitude to ethnic groups and their languages.
The Dismissive Period
In 1968, The Bilingual Education Act, Title VII, provided funding to establish bilingual education programs for LEP/NES students. In 1974, with the reauthorization of the Bilingual Ed. Act, new grants were provided for program effectiveness. In 1995, Special Population Program modifications were required by the state of Texas.
Lau Vs. Nichols
Law suit filed by Chinese parents in San Francisco in 1974. Supreme court ruled that identical education does not constitute equal education. (Same teacher, same textbook does not equal education).
Requires school districts to submit a voluntary Civil Rights compliance plan if they had 20 or more students of the same language group.
The original and first Bilingual Act of 1968 was subsumed in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. It became a formula grant. Its funds may be used to implement a program for restructuring, reforming and upgrading all relevant programs within the district as a whole. Local money first then supplement from the state. Title 6 and 7 were consolidated to make this new Title.
The home, school, community, extended family, peer groups and teacher make up this group.
Individual Differences (Intra-Personal)
Motivation, attitude toward target community, personality, general intelligence, age, self-esteem, degree of first language proficiency, social development, and communicative strategies.
Type of motivation in second language acquistion
Instrumental and integrative
Results of motivation
Subtractive Bilingualism and Additive Bilingualism
Survivial within the dominant group, making a living, not the best, parents move here because they have to for whatever reason, (migrate, religion, refuge, forced to move).
Integration with the dominant group, meeting new people and new cultures, best situation, you give and you recieve.
Learning a second language at the cost of losing the first one. Since first language is one's emotional language, this type of bilingualism may be detrimental to one's whole being.
Learning a second language while maintaining the first one.
ESL teachers should demonstrate an undersanding of how cultural diversity affects the classroom and creates a classroom climate in which both the diversity and the similarities of groups and individuals are appreciated. The teacher also knows how to use the diversity inside and outside the bilingual/ESL classroom to create an environment that nurtures a sense of community, respects differences, and fosters in all learners an appreciation of their own and others' culture.
Two languages of an individual.
Two languages in society. Example: Paraguay - Spanish and Guarani.
Acceptance or promotion of multiple ethnic cultures. A person who has a multicultural view of others has more respect for other peoples and other cultures than a monolingual individual (single cultural).
Stages of Acculturation
Euphoria, culture shock, tentative recovery, assimilation or adaptation.
Students experience excitement about being in the new environment.
Students experience the intrusion of the new culture. Depression, irritability and difficulty in adjustment may occur.
Students experience acceptance or recovery from the initial culture shock. Language proficiency increases and students feel more confident.
Assimilation or Adaptation
Students experience either adaptation or assimilation of the new culture with renewed self-confidence.
English Language Learner (classification of student).
English as a Second Language (the program).
The student is on grade level, masters TEKS, and content learning.
How well the student can read, speak, listen and write.
Self-Contained ESL classroom
An ESL certified teacher (teachers everything) and a group of ESL students.
Student centered, hands on, small group, affective environment, visuals, make content comprehensible, and meet the needs of the students.
Recognize sounds in spoken language.
Listening and Reading.
Immigrant for TAKS purposes
Resides outside the US for 2 consecutive years.
Knows 2 languages (or more).
Knows 1 language and is learning English.
Strategies helpful to ELL's
Pictures, visuals, graphs, scoffolding.
Levels of Language
Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills learned within 1st two years.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency developed within 5 to 7 years without ESL methods.
Bilingual Education Act
Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Educaton Act of 1968. Establishes federal policy for bilingual education for economically disadvantaged language minority students; allocates funds for innovative programs; recognizes the unique educational disadvantages faced by non-English speaking students.
Plyler vs. Doe
Supreme Court denies the state's right to exclude the children of illegal immigrants from public school. The children are assigned a PEIMS number.
An approach in which students develop knowledge in specific subject areas through the medium of English, their second language; teachers adjust the language demands of the lesson in many ways, modifying speech rate and tone, using context clues and models instruction to student experience.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol; an observation tool that teachers can use to plan sheltered lessons and to hold themselves accountable for the instructional needs of English Language learners in the content areas.
A model of language education that integrates language and content instruction in the second language classroom; a second language learning approach where second language teachers use instrutional materials, learning tasks and classroom techniques from academic content areas.
All students in the program are English-language learners, usually, though not always, from different language backgrounds; they receive instruction in English, with an attempt to adjust the level of English so subject matter is comprehensible, typically, there is no native language support.
Students can share the same native language or be from different language backgrounds; student may be grouped with all ages and grade levels. English is adapted to the students' proficiency level, and supplemented by gestures and visual aids. Language of instruction is English; students leave their English-only classroom to spend part of their day receiving ESL instruction. Goal: English acquistion.
Self-contained ESL Class
Typically an ESL class with only ESOL students; their ESL classroom teacher teaches all subject matter to ESOL students and non-pullout ESL instruction is used.
A political response to the demographic fact of multi-ethnicity which encourages absorption of the minority into the dominant culture. The minority language and culture may be left behind in order to prosper in the majority language community.
Becoming adjusted to another culture. The exchange of cultural features that results when groups or individuals reciprocally adopt or appreciate the attitudes, the values, and language patterns of each other.