Renaissance Artist known his painting The Peasant Wedding
Founded the religion of Calvinism which believed in predestination, the idea that before you are born it is determined if you're going to heaven or hell.
A German Artist during the Renaissance who made a self portrait of himself to look very similar to Jesus.
A Christian humanist during the Reformation. Erasmus was a Catholic scholar who believed the Catholic Church needed reform, but did not join the Reformation.
Inventor of the "Printing Press", which enabled written word to be mass produced & assisted in the increase of literacy throughout Europe. Printing Press was a catalyst for the Reformation b/c writings of Martin Luther could be spread very easily.
King of England who broke away from the Catholic Church after the Pope rejected his request to have his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled or approved. This helped form the Church of England, AKA the Anglican Church
Leonardo da Vinci
Considered to the be the ideal "Renaissance Man". He was an artist who created many famous works including the Mona Lisa & The Last Supper. In addition to creating art, da Vinci also was an inventor, humanist, scholar, astronomer, & philosopher.
A German Catholic Monk who posted 95 theses or complaints on the Catholic Church. One of the primary reasons Luther posted these 95 theses to the church was b/c of the church's idea of selling indulgences to Catholics leading them to believe buying an indulgence could lead them to heaven. Many Catholics agreed with Luther on his complaints & left the church starting the Reformation in Europe. Many who left the church followed Luther, thus creating Lutheranism. However, other sects of Christianity or Protestantism where created, such as Calvinism, Anglicanism, & Anabaptism.
Niccolo Machiavelli was a politician from southern Europe in current day Italy. He wrote a book named "The Prince" which highlighted the ideas of what a politician needs to do in order to succeed in office. He noted that at certain times a politician should lie & mislead to people in order to succeed. He also thought that it was better to be feared than loved by the people.
Michelangelo was a Renaissance artist from current day Italy who created such works as David, which was a sculpture/statue of the Biblical figure David. He also painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, which took Michelangelo 4 years.
Author of "Utopia". He was a English Renaissance writer & devout Catholic who was killed by Henry VIII for failure to follow Henry's break from the Catholic Church.
English Renaissance writer known for many works such as "Romeo & Juliet" & "Macbeth".
Middle Ages Art
Blank gold background
No expression on faces
Not realistic / stiff figures
Main figure is bigger
Not religious or secular
Act of Supremacy
Henry VIII's break from the pope was completed when Parliament voted to approve this act. It called on people to take an oath recognizing Henry VIII's divorce and also accepting Henry, rather than the pope, as the official head of England's Church.
The Diet of Worms
Martin Luther criticized the pope and is excommunicated from the church. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V calls for Martin Luther to attend a meeting in the city of Worms to stand trial. Martin Luther refuses to take back his statements. He is later declared an outlaw and goes in to hiding, where he will continue his works.
Studied classical text to understand ancient values. Studied Greek and Latin language manuscripts. Christian teaching are maintained, but are no longer the only emphasis.
The 95 Theses
Martin Luther wrote a list of 95 reasons of why he was upset with the practices of the Church. He posted it on the door of a Church on Halloween night so that many people would see his list and his ideas would spread.
The Peace of Augsburg
Allowed for German princes to choose if their subjects can follow Catholicism or Lutheranism.
The wealthy would financially support the artists to demonstrate their own importance.
A movement for religious reform.
Causes: indulgences, corrupt church, 95 Theses, printing press, monarchs want power.
Effects: Peasant revolt, war, different sects of Christianity, Pope/church loses power.
The Counter Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola & his Jesuit Order- He gathered followers called Jesuits. They founded schools throughout Europe, converted non-Christians to Catholicism, attempted to stop the spread of Protestantism.
This movement started in Italy. It was a rebirth of classical art and learning.
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters