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Chinggis Khan

Grandson of Kabul Khan; born in 1170's; elected supreme Mongol ruler in 1206; began the Mongol's rise to world power.

Tumens

Basic fighting units of Mongol forces; made up of 10,000 men divided into smaller units.

Muhammad Shah II

Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm; conquered by Mongols in 1220.

Karakorum

Capital of Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan.

Shamanistic religion

Mongol beliefs focused on nature spirits

Batu

Grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of the Golden Horde; invaded Russia in 1236. (Remember* Khan's sons were failures, but his grandsons were great leaders)

Ogedei

Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded him as Monhol khagan.

Golden Horde

One of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after death of Chinggis Khan; conquered and ruled Russia during the 13th and 14th centuries.

Prester John

A mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some though he was Chinggis Khan.

Ilkhan khanate

One of four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Khan; eventually included much of Abbasid Empire.

Hulegu

Grandson of Chinggis Khan and ruler of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad.

Mamluks

Muslim slave warriors; established dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars; defeated Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260.

Kubilai Khan

Grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; established Yuan dynasty in 1271.

Tatu

Mongol capital of Yuan dynasty; present-day Beijing.

Chabi

Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; demonstrated refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Confucian China.

Nestorians

Asian Christian Sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.

Romance of the West Chamber

Famous Chinese dramatic work written during the Yuan period.

White Lotus Society

Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty.

Ju Yuanzhang

Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded Ming dynasty.

Timur-i Lang

Last major nomad leader; 14-th century Turkic ruler of Samarkand; launched attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent India, Southern Russia, Empire disintegrated after his death.

Khagan

title of supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.

Khanates

Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.

Battle of Kulikova

Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia.

Baibars

Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut in 1260; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.

Ming Dynasty

Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to souther Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.

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