Test 4

Created by aab23 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Taxonomy continues: Phylum Echinoidermata Phylum Chaetognatha Phylum Hemichordata Phylum Chordata

Phylum Echinodermata

- SW
- Deutorostome
- CaCO3 endoskeleton
- ossicles may fuse to form plates & spines
- water vascular system - feeding & movement

Echinodermata classes

Asteroidea
Ophiuroidea
Echinoidea
Holothuroidea
Crinoidea

Asteroidea

Benthic, several cm-1m, pedicellariae
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, carnivore evert+ingest
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration: podia, papullae
Excretion: Podia, papullae
Reproduction: dioecious, bipinnaria
Nervous: ring+radial nerves, eye spots
Food web: predator of rocky areas
Regeneration: arms, part of asexual reproduction, biomodel

Ophiuroidea

Benthic, mm-cm, NO ampulla
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia
Digestion: incomplete,stomach,all feeding t.
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration: podia+bursae
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, ophiopluteus
Nervous: ring+radial nerves, endings in arm plates
Food web: soft sediment, coral reefs
Regeneration: arms+disk

Echinoidea

Benthic, cm, CaCO3 ossicles may fuse to form plates, plates fuse to form test
3 body types: sea urchin, sand dollar, heart urchin
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, herbivore(sea urchins) or deposit feed(sand dollar & heart urchins)
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration: podia, gills in some, petals
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, echinopluteus
Nervous: ring+radia nerves
Food web: commercial harvest, development biomodel.
Regeneration: poor

Holothuroidea

Benthic, cm-1m, ossicles miscroscopic/unfused in most species, muscles, evisceration
WVS:madreporite,stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, deposit/particles
Circulation: vessels, no heart
Respiration: respiratory trees, diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, auricularia
Nervous: ring+radial nerves
Food web: commercial harvest
Regeneration

Crinoidea

Benthic, cm, no madreporite
WVS:stone,ring,radial,lateral,podia(w/ampulla)
Digestion: complete, filter feed
Circulation: open/closed combination, heart
Respiration:diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: dioecious, doliolaria
Nervous: stalk-cirri, mouth-arms, pinnule-podia
Food web: minor in reefs, FOSSILS
Regeneration

Phylum Chaetognatha

Planktonic, SW, mm-cm
Digestion: complete, carnivore
Circulation: n/a
Respiration: diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: monoecious, direct
Nervous: ganglia, nerve net, ocelli
Food web: predators of plankton

Phylum Hemichordata

Benthic, SW, cm-m, deutorostome
Digestion: complete, deposit feed
Circulation: heart-kidney, closed vessels, some sinuses
Respiration: gill pores, no gills
Excretion: heart-kidney
Reproduction: dioecious, tornaria
Nervous: nerve ring, dorsal+ventral cord
Food web: minor in soft sediment

Phylum Chordata characteristics

1) Deutorostome
2) Notochord
3)Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
4) Gill slits
5) Endostyle or thyroid
6) Post-anal tail

Chordata subphylums and classes

Subphylum Urochordata -> Ascidiacea
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Subphylum Vertebrata -> Myxinii, Cephalospidomorphi, Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia

Ascidiacea

Benthic, SW, few cm, attached, colonial/solitary
Digestion: complete, filter feed
Circulation: closed, reversing heart
Respiration: diffusion
Excretion: diffusion
Reproduction: monoecious, tadpole
Nervous: ganglia, nerve net
Food web: filter water in shallow area, habitat for other animals, bioactive compound

Cephalocordata

Benthic in sand, SW, few cm
Digestion: complete, filter feed
Circulation: closed, no heart
Respiration: diffusion
Excretion: metanephridia
Reproduction: dioecious, larval stage
Nervous: ganglia, nerve cord
Food web: minor part in some bays
Humans
Hox gene <-developmental control gene

Subphylum Vertebrata

T,SW,FW
-Cranial Case
-Brain more complex
-Closed circulatory system:heart w/2,3,4chambers
-Complex kidney:pronephric->mesonephric(opisthrnephric)->metanephric
Complete digestive system: mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,intestines, anus
sensory apparatus:eyes,ears,nose,semicircular canals(1,2,3)
Dioecious: oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous

Myxinii

SW,cm-1m
Jaws:n/a
Body cover:skin
Bones: n/a
Vertebrae:n/a
Paired appendages:n/a
Notochord: present
Semicircular canal: 1
Sensory:barbels,degenerate eyes
Feeding: scavenger,mouth w/small teeth, no stomach

Cephalospedomorphi

SW,FW,1m
Jaws:n/a
Body cover:skin
Bones: n/a
Vertebrae:n/a
Paired appendages:n/a
notochord: present
semicircular canals: 2
Sensory: eyes

Chondriethys

SW,FW,cm-12m
Jaws:present,upper not fused to skull
Body cover:placoid scales
Bones:n/a
vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:pectoral+pelvic fins
Notochord: reduced
Semicircular canal:3
Sensory: eyes,nostrils(external+internal), lateral lines, ampullae of Larenzini

Actinopterygii

SW,FW,cm-few m
Jaws: present, uupper not fused to skull
Body cover: scales (ganoid-bony)(cycoid)(ctenoid-toothlike),skin
Bones:present
Vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:pectoral+pelvic
Notochord:reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils, lateral line

Amphibia

FW, T
Jaws: present, upper fused to skull
Body cover: skin
Bones: present
Vertebrae: present
Paired appendages: fore+hind limbs
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes, ears, nostrils

Reptilia

T,FW,SW
Jaws: upper fused to skull,similar teeth
Body cover:scales
Bones:present
Vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:fore+hind limbs
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils,ears(external+internal),heat pits

Aves

T,FW,SW,cm-severalm
Feather types:contour(quil,shaft,vane),filoplume,down
Jaws:upper fused to skull, no teeth, beak
Body cover:feathers,scales on feet
Bones:present, hollow
Vertebrae:present, tail reduced
Paired appendages:feet+wings
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils,ears

Mammalia

T,SW,FW, cm-m
Jaws:upper fused to skull, lower free to move
Body cover:skin
Bones:present
Vertebrae:present
Paired appendages:fore+hind limbs
Notochord:very reduced
Semicircular canals:3
Sensory:eyes,nostrils,ears

Actinopterygii

Digestion:all feeding types
Circulation:2c.heart
Respiration:gills,swim bladder
Excretion:mesonephric kidney, bladder, gills
Reproduction:oviparous, some with larva
Nervous:cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum
Food web:commercial harvest, pet trade

Cephalospedomorphi

Digestion: parasitic (no stomach, fluid meals) or none (function for reproduction)
Circulation: 2c. heart
Respiration: gills
Excretion: mesonephric kidney
Reproduction: oviparous, ammocoetes
Nervous: brain small cerebrum, small cerebellum
Food web: parasites on fish, great lake ecology

Myxinii

Circulation:2c.heart,3accessory hearts
Respiration:gills in gill pores
Excretion: pronephric-mesonephric kidney
Reproduction:both gonads present but only one functional,oviparous, direct
Nervous: brain, very small cerebrum, no cerebellum
Food web: scavengers in deep ocean

Chondriethys

Digestion:carnivore
Circulation:2c.heart
Respiration:(5-7)gills, spiracles
Excretion:mesonephric kidney,rectal gland,gills,blood
Reproduction:all types, no larva
Nervous:cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum(small)
Food web: top-predators, commercial harvest, attacks

Amphibia

Digestion:carnivores
Circulation:3c.heart
Respiration:lungs,gills,skin
Excretion:mesonephric kidney, bladder
Reproduction:oviparous,larva
Nervous:cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum
Food web:predators in lakes, commercial
Environment problems

Reptilia

Digestion:carnivores+herbivores
Circulation:3c.heart+in most 4 incives
Respiration:lungs
Excretion:metanephric kidney
Reproduction:most oviparous, no larva, SHELLED EGG(shell,chorion,amnion,allantois,yolksac,embryo)
Nervous:cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum(increased)
Food web:mid-level, commercial harvest,eggs,hides

Aves

Digestion:all types, crop in some
Circulation:4c.heart
Respiration:lungs+air sacs
Excretion:metanephric kidney
Reproduction:oviparous, hard egg shell, mating+nesting, right side ovary degenerate
Nervous:large cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum(w/visual area)
Food web:mid-upper, commercial harvest, farming, pet trade
Pollination, seed dispersal

Mammalia

Digestion:carnivores,herbivores,omnivores
Respiration:lungs
Excretion:metanephric kidney
Reproduction:Oviparous-monotremes, viviparous(placentral-placenta=chorion+alantois)(marsupials-pouch), mammary glands
Nervous:very large cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum well developed, commercial harvest, farming, hunting, pet trade
Food web:mid-upper
Pollination, seed dispersal

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set