Chapter 7: Cell Physiology

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physiology

(how it works)
study of biological function

homeostasis

ability to maintain constant internal balance regardless of the environment (steady state)
-occurs at all levels
-cells exist in fluid environment
-cells must keep cytoplasm

4 factors decide what go through (homeostasis)

-size
-cell membrane
-dissolves in water
-conditions inside & outside the cell

At cellular level, homeostasis depends on movement....

in & out of the cell
-all things must pass through cell membrane

permeable

can pass through

impermeable

can't pass through

cell membrane is....

selectively (chemical) and semi-permeable (size, charge)

passive transport

energy is not required for substances to pass in and out of the cell

diffusion

moving particles from high to low concentration
-possible because of kinetic energy (energy of motion) atoms move in a straight line
-atoms keep moving til their spread evenly

Factors that affect rate of diffusion

-concentration
-pressure
-temperature

osmosis

movement of water (diffusion)
-call can't control osmosis - it moves on it's own

isotonic solution

some inside & out
-no net water movement

hypertonic solution

higher outside the cell
-water moves out

hypotonic solution

lower outside the cell
-water moves in

tugor pressure

pressure exerted by cell contents against the cell wall
-helps support soft tissue

plasmolysis

loss of tugor pressure
-causes cell contents to shrink away from the cell

cytolysis

bursting of cell from water pressure inside

active transport

energy required, low to high.

endocytosis

moves molecules and particles into the cell
-phagocytosis - cytoplasm surrounds the particles
-pinocytosis-collects on the cell membrane and pinches inward

exocytosis

large particles shipped out by golgi apparatus

Passive & active transport...

of materials through the cell membrane are ways cell maintains homeostasis

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