Botany-Flowers, Fruits, Bryophytes

Created by rcunningham1226 

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67 terms

monocotyledons

90,000 species. Includes grasses, lilies, irises, orchids, cattails, and palms

eudicots

200,000 spevies

sterile parts

sepals and petals

fertile parts

stamens and carpels

calyx

sepals fused together

corolla

petals

androecium

many stamens, collectively

pollen grains

developed and disseminated in anthers

carpel

ovule bearing part of the flower, consists of stigma, style, and ovary

gynocium

many carpels

hypogynous

perianth and stamens are situated on the receptacle beneath the ovary, as in lilies

epigynous

Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, as in apple blossoms

receptacle

enlarged tip of a stem that bears the floral parts

peduncle

stalk bearing an inflorescence or solitary flower

perigynous

stamens and petals are adnate to calyx and thus form a short tube (hypanthium) arising from the base of the ovary, as in cherry blossoms

complete flower

contains all 4 strucutres: sepal, petal, stamen, carpel

perfect flower

bisexual, has both stamen and carpel

monoecious

both staminate and carpellate flowers occur on the same plant such as maize and oaks

diocious

staminate and carpellate are found on separate plants, such as willows

regular flower

actinomorphic flower with radial symmetry

irregular flower

zygomorphic flower wit bilateral symmetry

inflorescences

Any arrangement of flowers in a cluster on a stem

fruit

an ovary and its accessory parts that have developed and matured

drupe

fleshy fruit with a single seed enclosed by hard, stony pit, develops from superior ovary containing single ovule

berry

develops from compound ovary, contains more than one seed, thin skin and soft pericarp

pomes

develops from compound inferior ovary in which the flesh comes from the enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows around ovary

dehiscent

split at maturity (follicle, legume, capsule, silique)

follicle

splits along one side or seam (derived from single carpel) milkweed, magnolia

legume

splits along two sides or seams, coral trees, soybeans

silique

splits along two sides or seam, but seeds are borne on central partition exposed when the two halves separate (Brassica rapa)

capsules

consist of at least 2 carpels (indicates compound ovary) and split in a variety of ways, most commong. butterfly iris, bletilla orchid

indehiscent

do not split at maturity (achene, nut, grain, samara, schizocarp)

wind dispersal

small, light weight seeds

animal dispersal

seeds pass through digestive tract
fruits and seeds catch in fur or feathers
oils attract anys

bryophytes

23,000 species including liverworts, hornworts, and mosses. nonvascular plants

Peat Moss

Sphagnum-contains tannic acid

Liverwort

Marchantia

Phylum Hepaticophyta

liverworts

thalli

flattened, lobed gametophyte. 30 cells thick at midrib

protonema

immature gametophyte

gametangia

gamete producing structure

antheridia

male gametangia

archegonia

female gametangia

sporophyte in Marchantia

consists of foot, short seta (stalk) and capsule (sporangia)

sporangia

spore producing structure

elater

elongated structure hat twists around to help release spores

venter

contains egg cell

Phylum Anthocerophyta

hornworts (100 species)

Phylum Bryophtya

mosses, 9,500 species

three types of moss

peat, true, granite

paraphysis

sterile strucutre

Phylum Lycopodiophyta

1200 species, 10-15 genera-club mosses most familiar

Lycopodium

50 species, ground pines, HOMOSPORY

Selaginella

over 750 species

sporophylls

contain sporangia

strobilus

aggregated sporophylls in Lycopodium

Selaginella

spike mosses, adbundant in tropics, HETEROSPORY

microphylls

a small leaf with a single unbranched vein, whorled or in a tight spiral

microsporophylls

bear microsporangia and produce microspores

megasporophylls

bear megasporangia and produce 4 megaspores

Isoetes

quillworts 60 speices

Phylum Pteridophyta

ferns

indusium

thin, protective tissue

sori

patterns of fern sporangia

psilotum

whisk ferns

enations

leaf-like tissues, arranged spirally along stems, outgrowth of epidermis

equisetum

horsetails 25 species

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