HCA Apologia General Science - Module 16

32 terms by ramblin12 

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Neurons

Nerve cells composed of dendrites and axons.

Synapse

The point at which a signal from one neuron is passed to another neuron.

Neuroglia

Cells that support the neurons and help communicate with one another.

Dendrites

Conduct electrical signals TOWARDS the cell body.

Axons

Conduct electrical signals AWAY from the cell body.

Nerves

Bundles of axons that carry signals to and from the brain.

Central nervous system

(CNS) Composed of the brain and the spinal cord. This is the part of the nervous system that does most of the information processing.

Peripheral nervous system

(PNS) Contains all the neurons involved in receiving information and sending it on to the spinal cord and brain.

Cerebrum

Deals with the "higher-level" brain functions. These would include interpreting signals, learning, reasoning, and memory.

Gray matter

Composed almost exclusively of the cell bodies of neurons.

Corpus callosum

Allows the two hemispheres of the brain to exchange information.

Cerebellum

Has many functions mostly oriented around muscle movements.

Brain stem

It controls the more basic functions of the human body, such as breathing, heart rate, and the pressure at which blood is pumped through the body.

Autonomic nervous system

The system of nerves which carries instructions from the CNS to the body's smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands.

Sensory nervous system

The system of nerves which carries information from the body's receptors to the CNS.

Somatic motor nervous system

The system of nerves which carries instructions from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.

Sympathetic division

Part of the autonomic nervous system that increases the rate and strength of the heartbeat and raises the blood pressure.

Parasympathetic division

Part of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate and lowers the blood pressure.

Papillae

Tiny "bumps" you see on your tongue.

Taste buds

Identify sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami.

Cornea

Where light first passes through in the eye; covered with a thin layer of clear tissue that is kept moist and clean.

Lens

What the eye uses to focus the image.

Retina

The part of the eye on which an image is focused

Ciliary muscle

A smooth muscle that changes the shape of the lens in order to adjust the focus.

Ear drum

A thin sheet of tissue that vibrates as the result of vibrations in the ear.

Ossicles

Tiny bones in the middle ear that move back and forth as a result of the ear drum vibrating.

Cochlea

Snail-like shape that responds to the vibration of the ossicles by transforming it into electrical signal and sending it on to the brain to be interpreted as sound.

Olfactory epithelium

Roof of the nasal cavity

Rods and cones

Cells on the retina that are sensitive to light

Ciliary muscle

Attached to the lens of the eye

Optic nerve

The nerve leading from the eye to the brain

Olfactory sensory cells

Cells with "hair" in the nose that interact with chemicals that dissolve in the mucus

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