Medical Terminology

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Micturition, urinating, voiding

terms meaning process of releasing urine from the body

nephrons

place where the filtrscantyation of waste products in the kidney takes place

olig/o

combining form for scanty

consultant dietitians

dietitians who work with individual clients or facilities

sodium, potassium, biocarbonate

electrolytes the kidney regulates

uremia

waste products stay in the urinary system and become toxic and this condition will develop

homeostasis

balance within the body

-stenosis

suffix for narrowing

urinary meatus

urine is discharged outside the body through

peritoneum

membrane lining the abdominal cavity

-ectasia

suffix for dilation

noct/i

combining form for night

vesic/o

combining form for bladder

azot/o

combining form for nitrogenous waste

ureters

transports urine from the kidenys to the bladder

urethrorrhagia

rapid bleeding from the urethra

interstitial cystitis

disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder

escherichia coli

e.coli is the abbreviation for which organism

hematuria

blood in the urine

enuresis

another name for bedwetting

meatotomy

surgical enlargement of the urinary opening

hemodialysis

this is the use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products

diuresis

increased formation and secretion of urine

acute tubular necrosis

damage to the renal tubules due to the presence of toxins int he urine

Blood test to measure kidney function

BUN

kideny, ureters, and bladder

flat-plate abdoment x-ray examines these organs

Wilm's tumor

malignant kidney tumor found most often in children

urgency

feeling the need to urinate immediately

polyuria

too much urine

acute tubular necrosis (ATN)

Damage to the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia; results in oliguria.

afferent arteriole

Arteriole that carries blood into the glomerulus.

albumin

A protein that is normally found circulating in the bloodstream.

antibiotic

Destroys or prohibits the growth of microorganisms. Used to treat bacterial infections. Have not been found to be effective in treating viral infections. To be effective, it must be taken regularly for a specified period of time

antispasmodic

Medication to prevent or reduce bladder muscle spasms

anuria

Complete suppression of urine formed by the kidneys and a complete lack of urine excretion

azoturia

Nitrogenous waste in the urine.

bacteriuria

Bacteria in the urine.

bladder cancer

Cancerous tumor that arises from the cells lining the bladder; major symptom is hematuria.

bladder neck obstruction

Blockage of the bladder outlet into the urethra.

Bowman's capsule

Also called the glomerular capsule, Part of the renal corpuscle, a double-walled cup-like structure encircles the glomerulus

calculus

A stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts. Found in the kidney, renal plural is calculi.

calyx

A duct that connects the renal papilla to the renal pelvis. Urine flows from the collecting tubule through the calyx and into the renal pelvis

catheter

A flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be visualized on x-rays. In the urinary system used to drain urine from the bladder

catheterization

Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye

clean catch urine specimen (CC)

Urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a sample in midstream (halfway through the urination process) to minimize contamination from the genitalia

collecting tubule

A portion of the renal tubule

cortex

outer layer of an organ

creatinine clearance

Test of kidney function. Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys. For this test, urine is collected for 24 hours and the amount of creatinine in the urine is compared to the amount of creatinine that remains in the bloodstream

cystalgia

Bladder pain

cystectomy

Excision of the bladder

cystic

Pertaining to the bladder

cystocele

Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina. This may cause urinary frequency and urgency

cystogram

Record of the bladder

cystography

Process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on X-ray

cystolith

Bladder stone

cystopexy

Surgical fixation of the bladder

cystoplasty

Surgical repair of the bladder

cystorrhagia

Rapid bleeding from the bladder

cystoscope

Instrument used to visually examine the bladder

cystoscopy

Visual examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope

cystostomy

Creation of an opening through the body wall and into the bladder

cystotomy

Incision into the bladder

diabetic nephropathy

Accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus

distal convoluted tubule

A portion of the renal tubule

diuresis

Abnormal secretion of large amounts of urine

diuretic

Increases the excretion of urine, which promotes the loss of water and salt from the body. Can assist in lowering blood pressure; therefore, these drugs are used to treat hypertension. Potassium in the body may by depleted with continued use of diuretics. Potassium-rich foods such as bananas, kiwi, and orange juice can help correct this deficiency

dysuria

Painful or difficult urination. This is a symptom in many disorders, such as cystitis, urethritis, enlarged prostate in the male, and prolapsed uterus in the female

efferent arteriole

Arteriole that carries blood away from the glomerulus

electrolyte

Chemical compound that separates into charged particles, or ionizes, in a solution. Sodium chloride (NaCl)and potassium (K) are examples of electrolytes.

enuresis

Involuntary discharge of urine after the age by which bladder control should have been established. This usually occurs by the age of five. Also called bedwetting at night

excretory urography

Injection of dye into the bloodstream followed by taking an X-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye

external sphincter

Ring of voluntary muscle that controls the emptying of urine from the bladder.

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)

Use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. Process does not require surgery.

filtration

First stage of urine production during which waste products are filtered from the blood.

frequency

A greater than normal occurrence in the urge to urinate, without an increase in the total daily volume of urine. Frequency is an indication of inflammation of the bladder or urethra.

genitourinary system

Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs

glomerular capsule

Also called Bowman's capsule. Part of the renal corpuscle. It is a double-walled cup-like structure that encircles the glomerulus. In the filtration stage of urine production, waste products filtered from the blood enter Bowman's capsule as the glomerular filtrate

glomerular filtrate

The product of the filtration stage of urine production. Water, electrolytes, nutrients, wastes, and toxins that are filtered from blood passing through the glomerulus. The filtrate enters Bowman's capsule.

glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the kidney (primarily of the glomerulus). Since the glomerular membrane is inflamed, it becomes more permeable and will allow protein and blood cells to enter the filtrate. Results in protein in the urine (proteinuria) and hematuria

glomerulus

Ball of capillaries encased by Bowman's capsule. In the filtration stage of urine production, wastes filtered from the blood leave the glomerulus capillaries and enter Bowman's capsule.

glycosuria

Presence of an excess of sugar in the urine

hematuria

Condition of blood in the urine

hemodialysis (HD)

Use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products. Use of this technique in patients who have defective kidneys is lifesaving.

hesitancy

A decrease in the force of the urine stream, often with difficulty initiating the flow. It is often a symptom of a blockage along the urethra, such as an enlarged prostate gland.

hilum

Center of the concave side of the kidney which is an important landmark on the kidney. It is the site where the renal artery enters, the renal vein leaves, the ureter leaves, and nerves enter and leave the kidney.

homeostasis

Steady state or state of balance within the body. The kidneys assist in maintaining this regulatory, steady state.

hydronephrosis

Distention of the pelvis due to urine collecting in the kidney resulting from an obstruction

internal sphincter

Ring of involuntary muscle that keeps urine within the bladder.

interstitial cystitis

Disease of unknown cause in which there is inflammation and irritation of the bladder. Most commonly seen in middle-aged women

intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

Injecting a contrast medium into a vein and then taking an X-ray to visualize the renal pelvis

ketonuria

Ketones in the urine

kidney

located in the lumbar region of the back behind the parietal peritoneum, under muscles of the back above waist, have a concave or depressed area like a bean shape

kidneys, ureters, bladder

X-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye; also called a flat-plate abdomen

lithotomy

Surgical incision to remove kidney stones

lithotripsy

Destroying or crushing kidney stones in the bladder or urethra with a device called a lithotriptor.

loop of Henle

A portion of the renal tubule.

meatotomy

Surgical enlargement of the urinary opening (meatus).

medulla

The central area of an organ

micturition

Another term for urination

nephrectomy

Excision of a kidney

nephritis

Inflammation of the kidney

nephrogram

X-ray of the kidney

nephrolith

Kidney stone

nephrolithiasis

The presence of calculi in the kidney

nephrolithotomy

Incision into the kidney to remove a stone.

nephrologist

Specialist in the treatment of kidney disorders.

nephrology

Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the urinary system

nephroma

Kidney tumor

nephromalacia

Softening of the kidney

nephromegaly

Enlarged kidney

nephron

The functional or working unit of the kidney that filters the blood and produces the urine. There are more than 1 million nephrons in an adult kidney. Each nephron consists of a renal corpuscle and the renal tubules.

nephropathy

Kidney disease

nephropexy

Surgical fixation of a kidney

nephroptosis

Drooping kidney

nephrosclerosis

Hardening of the kidney

nephrosis

Abnormal condition (degeneration) of the kidney

nephrostomy

Create a new opening across the body wall into the kidney

nephrotic syndrome (NS)

Damage to the glomerulus resulting in protein appearing in the urine, proteinuria, and the corresponding decrease in protein in the bloodstream

nephrotomy

Incision into a kidney

neurogenic bladder

Loss of nervous control that leads to retention; may be caused by spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis

nitrogenous waste

Waste products that contain nitrogen. These products, such as ammonia and urea, are produced during protein metabolism.

nocturia

Excessive urination during the night. May or may not be abnormal

oliguria

scanty amount of urine

peritoneal dialysis

Removal of toxic waste substances from the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity. Used in treating renal failure and certain poisonings.

peritubular capillaries

Capillary bed surrounding the renal tubules

polycystic kidneys

Formation of multiple cysts within the kidney tissue; results in the destruction of normal kidney tissue and uremia.

polyuria

excessive urine production, can be a symptom of diabetes

proteinuria

Protein in the urine.

proximal convoluted tubule

A portion of the renal tubule

pyelitis

Inflammation of the renal pelvis.

pyelogram

X-ray record of the renal pelvis after injection of a radiopaque dye.

pyelonephritis

Inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney. One of the most common types of kidney disease. It may be the result of a lower urinary tract infection that moved up to the kidney by way of the ureters. There may be large quantities of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine, and blood (hematuria) may even be present in the urine in this condition. Can occur with any untreated or persistent case of cystitis

pyeloplasty

Surgical repair of the renal pelvis

pyuria

Presence of pus in the urine

reabsorption

Second phase of urine production, substances needed by the body are----- as the filtrate passes through the kidney tubules

renal artery

Artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and carries blood to the nephrons of the kidney.

renal cell carcinoma

Cancerous tumor that arises from kidney tubule cells

renal colic

Pain caused by a kidney stone, which can be an excruciating and generally requires medical treatment

renal corpuscle

Part of a nephron, double-walled cup-like structure called the glomerular capsule or Bowman's capsule and contains a capillary network called the glomerulus. An afferent arteriole carries blood to the glomerulus and an efferent arteriole carries blood away from the glomerulus. The filtration stage of urine production occurs in the renal corpuscle as wastes are filtered from the blood in the glomerulus and enter Bowman's capsule.

renal failure

Inability of the kidneys to filter wastes from the blood resulting in uremia; may be acute or chronic; major reason for a patient being placed on dialysis.

renal papilla

Tip of a renal pyramid.

renal pelvis

Large collecting site for urine within the kidney. Collects urine from each calyx. Urine leaves the renal pelvis via the ureter.

renal pyramids

Triangular-shaped region of the renal medulla.

renal transplant

Surgical replacement of a donor kidney.

renal tubule

Network to tubes found in a nephron. It consists of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal tubule, and the collecting tubule. The reabsorption and secretion stages of urine production occur within the renal tubule. As the glomerular filtrate passes through the renal tubule, most of the water and some of the dissolved substances, such as amino acids and electrolytes, are reabsorbed. At the same time, substances that are too large to filter into Bowman's capsule, such as urea, are secreted directly from the blood stream into the renal tubule. The filtrate that reaches the collecting tubule becomes urine.

renal vein

Vein that carries blood away from the kidneys.

retrograde pyelogram

A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.

retrograde pyelogram

A diagnostic X-ray in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis.

retroperitoneal

Pertaining to behind the peritoneum. Used to describe the position of the kidneys, which is outside of the peritoneal sac alongside the spine.

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