what are the 6 principles of verbal messages?
-Message meaning are in people
-messages are denotative and connotative
-messages vary in abstraction
-messages vary in assertiveness
-messages vary in politeness
-messages are influenced by culture and gender
What is connotative?
subjective or emotional meaning of message
what is denotative?
objective meaning of message?
What are the three politeness messages?
-politeness and directness
-politeness and gender
-politeness and outline
communication pattern in which we ignore another person's presence as well as their communications
communication pattern in which we acknowledge the other persons presence, indicate your acceptance of this person, and of this persons definition of self, and the relationship as defined or viewed by this other person
prejudice against people based on race
prejudge towards LGBTQ people
prejudge against people of a different age group
prejudge against people with disabilites
prejudge against people of a differnent age group
What verbal messages should be avoided?
the tendency to view people.objects, and events according to stereotypes
viewing someone as something based on a first impression
fact inference confusion
treating inference about people as facts
failure to recognize people as individuals
tendency to view the world as extremes; either very negative or very positive
retain a judgment of a person despite some inevitable changes in the person
Four Types of Artifactual Communication?
-Clothing and Body Adornment
Color influences our perceptions and behaviors
Clothing and Body Adornment
People make inferences about you based on how you dress or look
Decoration of your workplace, home, or surroundings can be used to make inferences about you
possessive reaction to an area or particular object
What are the 3 types of territory?
What are the markers for spatial communication?
what are the six functions of non-verbal communication?
-Integrating with Verbal Communications
-Influencing and Deceiving
What ar the 5 main body movements?
movements that can be directly translated into words
enhance the verbal message they accompany
movements of the face (also hand gestures) that help communicate emotional meaning
behaviors that monitor, control, coordinate, or maintain speech of another individual
gestures that satisfy simple needs; scratching an itch
Why is "silence" helpful?
-Gives the speaker and listener time to think before reacting
-Can be used to help emphasize a point
-Used as a weapon to attack someone ("Silent Treatment")
-Use the hands and face during silence to communicate emotion
express regret for something you've done
Use when you say or are accused of saying something that runs counter to what is expected, or considered right with the people you are having a conversation with
what make good excuser?
-Use excuses sparingly
-Accept responsibility for their own failures and avoid blaming others
-Those who accept responsibility are seen as more credible
what makes good apologizers?
-Admit wrongdoing when wrongdoing occurred
-Be specific rather than general
-Express understanding of others emotions
-Offer to correct problem
-Give assurance that it will not happen again
What are the three conversational principles
-Speaker cues and listener cues
-Use of metacommunication
What is metacommunitcaion?
communication about communication
-Communicate immediacy by conveying a sense of interest and attention, a liking for, and an attraction to the other person
What is immediacy?
the creation of closeness or sense of togetherness between the listener and speaker
What are the 5 stages of conversation?
Differentiate the Types of Speaker and Listener Cues?
-Turn-Maintaining Cues: Indicate that you want to continue speaking
-Turn-Yielding Cues: Block the other person from speaking
-Turn-Requesting Cues: Indicate that you want to start speaking
-Turn-Denying Cues: Indicate reluctance to start speaking
-Backchanneling Cues and Interruptions: Communicate information back to speaker without actually speaking
Social Penetration Theory
describes relationships in terms of the number of topics that people talk about and the degree of "personaless"
people develop relationships on the basis of attraction
1. Physical Attractiveness and Personality
3. Proximity (Attraction to people close to you)
4. Reinforcement(Attraction to people who give rewards or reinforcements)
relationships are held together by adhering to certain rules
Social Exchange Theory
develop relationships that enable you to maximize your profits
uses the ideas of social exchange
What are the six stages of relationships?
What are the types if INTERpersonal relationships?
-Primary Relationships (Best Friend)
Small Group Comm.
collection of individuals who:
-Connected together for a common purpose
-Have some degree of organization among them
-See themselves as a group
particular type of small group
-Possess all of the characteristics of small groups
-Constructed to complete a specific task
-Members have clearly defined roles
-Committed to completing the task
-Content is focused
What are the small group stages?
attempt to identify what needs to be done, who will do it, and so on
group reflects on what was accomplished and what remains to be completed
group members are experts" but participate informally and without any set pattern of who speaks
each member delivers a prepared speech
-each speech covers a differnt topic
-leader introduces speakers and provides transitions.
Rules or standards identifying which behaviors are appropriate and inappropriate
High Culture Context
Information is communicated by the context rather than in explicitly coded verbal messages
Low Context Culture
1. Information is communicated through explicitly coded verbal messages as opposed to context
Process of Brianstorming
1. Rule 1- no evaluation during this stage
2. Rule 2- quantity of ideas is the goal
3. Rule 3- combinations and extensions of ideas are encouraged
4. Rule 4- freewheeling is desirable
Types of information sharing groups
types of problem solving groups
problem solving sequence(dewey's idea)
Dewey's Problem-Solving Sequence
-Define/Analyze the Problem
-Establish Criteria for Evaluating Solutions
-Identify Possible Solutions
-Select Best Solutions
-Test Selected Solutions
results in two possibilities
-try again(step 1)
What are the three general group member roles?
-Group Task Roles
-Group Building and Maintenance
What are the guidelines for effective small group participation and skills
-Center Conflict on Issues
-Be Critically Open-Minded
-Beware of Groupthink
-Agreement among members becomes so important that it shuts out realistic and logical analysis of a problem and of possible alternatives
what are the approaches to leadership?
The traits approach
view leader as one who possesses characteristics or skills that contribute to leadership
the functional approach
focuses on what the leader should do in a given situation
The Transformational Approach
- leader who evaluates the group's members, enabling them not only to accomplish the group task but also emerge as more empowered individuals
The situational approach
holds that the effective leader shifts their attention between task accomplishment and member satisfaction on the basis of the specific group situation
What are the four guidelines for persuasive speaking
-Focus on your Audience
-Ask for Reasonable Amounts of Change
-Anticipate Selective Exposure
-Follow a Motivating Sequence
argue on the basis of logic supported by reliable facts and evidence
reasoning from logic appeals
1. Reasoning from Specific Instances and Generalizations
2. Reasoning from Cause and Effect
3. Reasoning From Sign
Fallacies of appeal