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A Beka Chemistry. Chapter 8 terms

Johann Döbereiner

he put elements in groups of 3 called triads

John Newlands

he noticed similarities in every 8th element, which he called the law of octaves

Dmitri Mendeleev

he published a periodic table with elements arranged by increasing atomic mass and grouped in columns according to similar properties

periodic law

states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers

Henry Moseley

he said that elements should be arranged by increasing atomic number

group

vertical column of the periodic table

period

horizontal row of the periodic table

semimetals or metalloids

elements that have properties between metals and nonmetals

representative elements

collective term for all the elements in the A columns of the periodic table (IA-VIIIA)

transition metals

collective term for all the elements in the B columns of the periodic table

inner transition metals

the element in the two rows set off by themselves

alkali metals

the elements in column IA

alkaline earth metals

the elements in column IIA

chalcogens

the elements in column VIA

halogens

the elements in column VIIA

noble gases

the elements in column VIIIA

oxygen family

the other name for the chalcogens

inert gases

another name for the noble gases

halogens

this group's name means "salt formers" because they commonly react with metals to form salts

noble gases

elements in this group rarely undergo chemical reactions due to their filled outer shells of electrons

alkali metals

elements in this group reacts vigorously with water

alkaline earth metals

elements in this group usually exist as 2+ ions

group number

for all the representative elements, the total number of electrons in the largest energy (n) level is equal to this

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost energy level; they are generally the ones involved in chemical bonding

upper right

elements with the smallest atomic radius (size) are found in this corner of the periodic table

lower left

elements with the largest atomic radius (size) are found in this corner of the periodic table

smaller

simple cations are always ___ than the neutral atoms from which they are formed

larger

simple anions are always ___ than the neutral atoms from which they are formed

ionization energy

the energy required to remove an electron from an atom

upper right

elements with the highest first ionization energy are found in this corner of the periodic table

lower left

elements with the lowest first ionization energy are found in this corner of the periodic table

metallic character

a chemical property associated with metals and with low ionization energy

upper right

elements with the least metallic character are found in this corner of the periodic table

lower left

elements with the greatest metallic character are found in this corner of the periodic table

electron affinity

the amount of energy involved in the addition of one electron to a gaseous atom of an element

upper right

this corner of the periodic table has the most negative electron affinity

lower left

this corner of the periodic table has the least negative electron affinity

electronegativity

a measure of the ability of a chemically combined atom to attract electrons to itself

upper right

elements with the highest electronegativity are found in this corner of the periodic table

lower left

elements with the lowest electronegativity are found in this corner of the periodic table

fluorine

the element with the highest electronegativity

cesium

the element with the lowest electronegativity

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