sociology (deviance&groups/organizations)

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activities, time, well

people in a primary group share _____, spend _____, and know eachother _____

unique, irreplaceable

primary groups are _______ and _____

secondary groups

goal oriented-not very personal

secondary groups

have emotional ties, are temporary, goal oriented, and are impersonal

instrumental leadership

group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks (goal oriented leadership)

expressive leadership

group leadership that is people oriented

authoritarian

this type of decision making is where one person makes all the decisions (it's not necessarily negative)

democratic

this type of decision making has a leader but everyone helps make a decision (the leader gets the group involved)

laissez faire

this type of decision making is the most equal-everyone gets 1 vote per se (example: classroom setting)

group conformity

when people are willing to compromise their own judgement to fit in

asch's research

this persons research concluded that people would compromise their own judgement to fit in (did this by using the 'vision test')

authority

Milgram showed people will follow directions not only from ______

Milgram's research

this person made an experiment where teachers would need to shock students if they got an answer wrong-originally teachers rejected the idea

Janis' group think

this theory stated that experts are also willing to compromise their own judgement to fit in

reference group

this groups purpose is to serve as a social yardstick/backbone

stouffers research

this was based off of WW2-it was if saying 'What do you think?'

ingroup

want to be part of this
loyalty
something you stand for

outgroup

not the most popular group of people
outcasts
not very well understood

dyad

group involving two people
intimate but not very stable

triard

group involving 3 people
less intimate but more stable

more

_____ space effects the chance of contact among group members

people they know

in social diversity, if people are put in a larger group they will only maintain contact with _____ _____ ______

network

loose web of social ties

formal organizations

this is a large secondary group organized to achieve goals more efficiently

utilitarian

this type of formal organization gets paid (Starbucks)

coercive

this type of formal organization is a total institution (punishment or treatment)

normative

this type of formal organization does not get paid (voluntary)

heterogeneous

when people are put in a _________ group and have something in common they are more likely to strike convo

social groups

two or more people who identify with one another

temporal

a group can have ______ status

bureaucracy

the organizational model designed to accomplish tasks efficiently

industrial revolution

bureaucracy became popular during the _______ ________

specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules/regulations, technology competence, impersonality, formal written communication

these are the six characteristics of a bureaucracy

technology competence

understands/can utilize technology

impersonality

dehumanizing-just an employee

organizational environment

this refers to factors outside the organization that affect its operation (examples: technology, economic and political trends, population patterns)

bureaucracy

problems with _________ include alienation, inefficiency and ritualism, inertia

bureaucratic alienation

this has the potential to dehumanize individuals

inefficiency and ritualism

an example of this is thousands of pages of rules (red tape)

inertia

bureaucracies whose original purpose is done but they still exist

oligarchy

rule of the many by the few

scientific management

observe workforce
get data
analyze workers

hiring

in the 1960's big business was inefficient and unfair in their ____ practices

female advantage

this states that women have flexibility and strong communication skills (edge over men)

competitive, group cooperation

when it comes to hiring practices the US is _____ and Japan has ___ _______

insecure, lifetime

when it comes to job security the US is _____ and Japan has ______ security

separate, all aspects

when it comes to holistic involvement the US is _____ and Japan is involved in ____ ______

specialized, broad based

when it comes to training the US implements ______ training and Japan implements _____ ____ training

CEO, group

when it comes to decision making, the ____ makes the most of the decisions in the US and in Japan ___ decisions are made

creative autonomy

come in on your own schedule (apple and google)

competitive work teams

the Japanese use this-encourage cooperation

flatter organization

this type of organization is where power is spread among all branches

efficiency, calculability, uniformity, automation

these are the 4 principles of McDonaldization

efficiency

this principle of McDonaldization means to get things done as quickly as possible

calculability

this principle of McDonaldization says to do it according to plan

uniformity

this principle of McDonaldization says leave nothing to chance

automation

this principle of McDonaldization says that humans are unreliable

deviance

different or unexpected behavior (outsider)

social control

attempts a society makes at controlling thoughts/behaviors

outsider

a deviant person is considered an ______

formal

the criminal justice system is a _____ type of social control

crime/criminality

genetic research looks for possible links between biology and _______/____

reckless, dinitz

____ and ____'s created the containment theory

containment theory

this theory said that positive self images can contain negative impulses

informal

this type of social control would include scolding by mom or dad

formal

this type of social control would include receiving a high school diploma

deviance

the foundation of _____ includes:
-varying according to cultural norms (legalized gambling)
-people become ____ when others define them that way
-rule making and breaking involve social power

emile durkheim

____ _____ did the structural-functional analysis of deviance

emile durkheim

this person asked how without evil how do we define whats good

values, norms

deviance affirms cultural _____ and _____

moral

responding to deviance clarifies ____ boundaries

social unity

responding to deviance promotes _____ _____

social change

deviance encourages ____ ____

mertons strain theory

this theory explains that strain affects our culture by putting an emphasis on wealth/social status

innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion

these are the four types of deviance according to Merton

cloward and ohlin

these two people extended Merton's theory to deviant subcultures by saying that deviance occurs more when theres limited opportunities

capone, violent gangs, drugs/booze

these are the three delinquent subcultures

lower class youth

cohen suggested delinquency is most popular in this class (____ _____ ____)

walter miller

___ ____ created the 6 traits of a deviant subculture

trouble, toughness, lack of control, street smarts, freedom, lack control

walter miller created these 6 conclusions of a deviant subculture

stigma

a strong negative label given to someone

primary deviance

a one time offense (underage drinking)

secondary deviance

multiple offenses (repeated) binge drinking, stealing, etc

degregation ceremonies

stigmas are often attached to formal rituals called _____ ______

retrospective labeling

this type of labeling is one used with a current deviant person but looking back and interpreting why they may have turned out to be deviant

projective labeling

projecting forward and thinking that someone could potentially end up being a deviant person

mentally ill

be careful when labeling someone ____ ___
believed to involve body not mind

who, what, how we respond

these are the 3 consequences of defining deviance in morals and medical

differential association theory

this theory states that deviant behavior is done in groups

hirschi

this persons theory states that we all want to be deviant at one point in life

control theory

this theory states that we all want to be deviant at one point in life

hirschi

this person believed that conformity arises through attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief

rich, rich, powerful

the three principles of deviance and power state that
-laws favor ______
-norms of society reflect interests of ____
-_____ have resources to resist deviant labeling

steve spitzer

____ ___ suggested that deviant labels are applied to those who impede the operation of capitalism

white collar crime

these types of crimes are committed by people of high social position in the course of their operations

corporate crimes

these types of crimes are committed by corporations against employees and consumers

hate crime

this type of crime is motivated by racial or other bias

organized crime

this type of crime is planned and carried out by a group of people (gangs)

the act itself, the criminal intent

these are the 2 components of crime

crimes against the person

this crime involves direct violence against others-rape and murder

crimes against poverty

these crimes involved theft of property belonging to others-arson

victimless crimes

these crimes have no victims-drug usage-underage drinking

15-24, male, lower class, black

street criminal profile
-age
-gender
-class
-race

plea bargain

negotiating a guilty plea
ca reduce charge and punishment

police

how serious is the crime
suspect cooperative or not
has the suspect been arrested before
bystanders present
the ____ evaluates this

court

deal with plea bargains
_______ behavior

retribution

an eye for an eye

deterrence

discourage future deviance

rehabilitation

reform offenders while in prison

societal protection

temporary removal of offender
permanent removal by death

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