# Chemistry- Light + Atom

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Light Bohr Quantum Mechanics

### Wavelength (ƛ)

the distance between similar points on successive waves

### Frequency (ν)

the number of waves passing a given point per second

### Crest

the highest point of a wavelength

### Trough

the lowest point of a wavelength

### Amplitude

distance from the baseline to the crest (depends on the intensity or brightness of the light)

-composed of electric and magnetic field traveling together
-the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are constantly changing
-wavelength of light waves

### Wavelength of Light Waves

the distance between successive and maximum values of the electric field

### Speed of Light

constant
-3.00 x 10¹⁰ cm/sec
-3.00 x 10⁸ m/sec

### Speed of Light Equation

speed of light=wavelength x frequency
c=ƛxν

### Speed of Light (If Consistent)

Wavelength and Frequency are Inversely Related
-the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency
-the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency

### Visible Spectrum

Infrared, ROYGBIV, Ultraviolet
Longer Wavelength→Shorter Wavelength
Lower Frequency→Higher Frequency

### Wave Characteristics

Diffraction and Interference... light undergoes diffraction and interference... therefore light has as wave nature

### Diffraction

the bending of waves through a small opening; a straight beam of parallel waves emerges as a rounded pattern that spreads out

### Interference

an effect that results when two series of waves merge into each other: constructive and destructive

bigger waves

### Destructive Interference

stops/reduces the power of the waves; troph to troph, crest to crest

### Photon

an indivisible amount of light

### Planck's Equation for Energy Contained in a Photon

e=hν
-energy in a photon is proportional to the frequency

### Atomic Spectrum

a pattern of frequencies of light emitted by an atom

### Electron (Light)

particle within the atom responsible or the absorption and emission of light

### Bohr's Model of the Atom

-his model perfectly explains all the lines in his atomic spectra

### De Broglie Differs from Bohr's

De Broglie→ light as a wavelength
Bohr→ thought of the electron just as a particle

### Davisson and Germer

shoot a beam of electrons through a crystal and obtain a diffraction pattern
-verified light as a wavelength

### Quantum Mechanics vs. Newtonian Mechanics

quantum mechanics: very small objects, near speed of light
newtonian mechanic: regular sized objects, normal speeds

### Schrödinger

derived a wave equation which allows us to calculate the probability of finding an electron

### Orbital

the region which there is the highest probability of finding an electron

### N (Quantum Number)

energy levels
1-7 (ground state)

### L (Quantum Number)

sub-levels, shape of orbital
0→n-1

### M (Quantum Number)

orientation of orbital
-l→0→+l

spin on electron
-½, +½

### Formula Used for Computing the Maximum Number of Electrons for an Energy Level

2n² (square n first)

### Pauli's Exclusion Principle

no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers

### Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

it is impossible, to know with certainty, both the position + velocity of an electron at the same time

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