Psych Pre-Test 3

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Pre-test

1.The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called_________.
a.abnormal psychology
b.gerontology
c.human development
d.maturational studies

1. c. human development

2. A psychologist spends her entire career studying how and why changes occur in people throughout their lives. This psychologist is most likely working in the field of___________.
a. abnormal psychology
b. gerontology
c. human development
d. maturational studies

2. c. human development

3. In a __________design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.
a. cohort
b. longitudinal
c. behavior genetics
d. cross-sectional

3. b. longitudinal

4. Which of the following is a disadvantage of the longitudinal design?
a. Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.
b. It is relatively inexpensive.
c. It takes a shorter amount of time than a cross-sectional design.
d. Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.

4. d. Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.

5. A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the ______ method.
a. cohort design
b. longitudinal design
c. behavior genetics design
d. cross-sectional design

5. d. cross-sectional design

6. Which of the following is a main disadvantage of the cross-sectional design?
a. Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.
b. It is relatively expensive.
c. It takes a longer amount of time than a longitudinal study.
d. Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.

6. a. Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.

7. ________refers to heredity and __________ refers to environmental influences.
a. Nature; nurture
b. Cognition; emotion
c. Nurture; behavioral genetics
d. Cross-sectional; longitudinal

7. a. Nature; nurture

8. Juan and Carlos are identical twins. Juan was raised by his father and mother, and Carlos was accidentally placed with another family after a "mix up" at the hospital. At the age of 15, both boys "ran into each other" at a football game and noticed how they appeared to be "mirror images of each other." After proving they were twins by genetic testing, the families discussed some of the differences between the boys. Juan is very athletic and intelligent and excels in basketball but does not take school seriously and has F's in all subjects. Carlos is also athletic and intelligent, and excels in baseball and makes straight A's as a result of his strict home life and study routine. Although they are identical twins, what do you think accounts for the differences in their academic performance based on the research?
a. nurture
b. nature
c. school district superintendent
d. teacher appraisals of performance

8. a. nurture

9. Which of these physical skills typically develops LAST?
a. rolling over
b. standing alone
c. walking
d. sucking

9. c. walking

10. Which is the correct order of development of Six Motor Milestones according to research?
a. Sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over.
b. Crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support.
c. Raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking.
d. Rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest.

10. c. Raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking.

11. Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
a. preoperational; concrete operations; sensorimotor; formal operations
b. concrete operations; sensorimotor; preoperational; formal operations
c. sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations
d. preoperational; sensorimotor;concrete operations; formaloperations

11. c. sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations

12. A baby's language that consists of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations is called ______.
a. cooing
b. holophrasing
c. telegraphic speech
d. babbling

12. d. babbling

13. By about 12 months, most infants ____________________.
a. begin to use intonation in their language
b. build a vocabulary of one-word phrases
c. begin to distinguish, in their language, between themselves and others
d. begin to form two- and three-word sentences

13. b. build a vocabulary of one-word phrases

14. Shelby is very adaptable to change. She is on a regular sleeping, eating, and waking schedule. Thomas and Chess would describe Shelby as being a(n) _________child.
a. easy
b. difficult
c. slow-to-warm-up
d. undemanding

14. a. easy

15. Egbert is a quiet child who is very slow to adapt to change. However, if he is introduced gradually to new people or situations, then eventually he will accept them without too much distress. Thomas and Chess would say his temperament is ______.
a. active
b. slow-to-warm-up
c. difficult
d. easy

15. b. slow-to-warm-up

16. The emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver is called_________.
a. temperament
b. attachment
c. trust
d. habituation

16. b. attachment

17. Which of Erik Erikson's psychosocial crises revolves around the child's learning to direct his or her own behavior?
a. trust versus mistrust
b. initiative versus guilt
c. industry versus inferiority
d. autonomy versus shame and doubt

17. d. autonomy versus shame and doubt

18. In Erikson's __________stage of psychosocial development, preschoolers are challenged to control their own behavior.
a. trust versus mistrust
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. initiative versus guilt
d. industry versus inferiority

18. c. initiative versus guilt

19. The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult, is called ________.
a. adolescence
b. tweens
c. young adulthood
d. puberty

19. a. adolescence

20. Puberty is defined as _________.
a. the production of hormones in the reproductive glands stimulated by the pituitary gland
b. the stage of identity versus role confusion
c. the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
d. the time when a child becomes a teenager

20. c. the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak

21. Fifteen-year-old Todd is writing an impassioned novel about growing up in America. In his novel he describes his experiences in a way that portrays them as unique, such that no one has ever thought such deep thoughts or experienced such ecstasy before. Todd's writings most clearly reflect ______.
a. his sense of autonomy
b. the personal fable
c. the period of rebellion common to all adolescents
d. his developing sense of conscience

21. b. the personal fable

22. The tendency of teenagers to feel that they are always "on stage" and that they are the center of everyone else's world, just as they are the center of their own, is a phenomenon known as ___________.
a. formal operations
b. the imaginary audience
c. the personal fable
d. puberty

22. b. the imaginary audience

23. Brad is 18 and is looking into career options. He is currently deciding whether he wants to become a gourmet chef or a race car driver. Brad is at what stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development?
a. integrity versus despair
b. intimacy versus isolation
c. generativity versus stagnation
d. identity versus role confusion

23. d. identity versus role confusion

24. Erikson saw the major challenge of young adulthood as that of ______.
a. intimacy versus isolation
b. generativity versus stagnation
c. identity versus role confusion
d. integrity versus despair

24. a. intimacy versus isolation

25. Erik Erikson saw the major challenge of middle adulthood as that of ______.

a. intimacy versus isolation
b. identity versus role diffusion
c. integrity versus despair
d. generativity versus stagnation

25. d. generativity versus stagnation

26. Older adults who look back on their lives with regrets, wishing they could relive their lives, have not successfully resolved Erikson's psychosocial crisis of______________.
a. integrity versus despair
b. intimacy versus isolation
c. generativity versus stagnation
d. identity versus identity confusion

26. a. integrity versus despair

27. The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called _____________.
a. motivation
b. emotion
c. achievement
d. synergy

27. a. motivation

28.To psychologists, motivation refers to __________.
a. a state of tension resulting from the deprivation of physical needs, such as those for food and water
b. a process in which an individual sets goals in order to increase his or her competence and skills
c. an inferred process within an organism that causes it to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
d. movement through a hierarchy of needs, beginning with survival needs for sleep, food, and water and reaching the need for self-actualization

28. c. an inferred process within an organism that causes it to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation

29. Extrinsic motivation is defined as ___________.
a. the pursuit of an activity for external reward
b. the pursuit of an activity for its own sake
c. the pursuit of an activity to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation
d. the pursuit of an activity in order to increase one's competence and skills

29. a. the pursuit of an activity for external reward

30. A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment is known as ______.
a. primary motivation
b. intrinsic motivation
c. secondary motivation
d. extrinsic motivation

30. d. extrinsic motivation

31. Intrinsic motivation is one that propels a person to pursue an activity _______________.
a. for external rewards
b. for its own sake
c. to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation
d. in order to be judged favorably by others

31. b. for its own sake

32. __________ is a state of tension resulting from the deprivation of physical needs, such as those for food and water.
a. Motivation
b. A drive
c. A value
d. Instinct

32. b. A drive

33. According to drive-reduction theory, what occurs each time a behavior results in drive reduction?
a. Tension is increased.
b. Stability is reduced.
c. Tension is reduced.
d. Drives are increased.

33. c. Tension is reduced.

34. The tendency of the body to maintain a steady state of functioning is called _______________.
a. stability
b. equilibrium
c. homeostasis
d. physiological balance

34. c. homeostasis

35. Which of the following activities is inconsistent with drive-reduction theory?
a. eating food that tastes bad
b. going swimming on a hot day
c. eating when you are not hungry
d. smoking pot to relax

35. c. eating when you are not hungry

36. Primary drives are caused by ______.
a. exceptions to the drive-reduction principle
b. learned behaviors
c. stimuli within the body
d. stimuli outside the body

36. c. stimuli within the body

37. Primary drives are ______.
a. learned
b. unlearned
c. produced by external incentives
d. exceptions to the drive-reduction principle

37. b. unlearned

38. Drives that are learned through experience are called ______ drives.
a. primary
b. reflexive
c. acquired
d. tertiary

38. c. acquired

39. nAch is an abbreviation for ____________.
a. no achievement
b. need for achievement
c. no challenge
d. need for change

39. b. need for achievement

40. The need for _____________ involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals.
a. achievement
b. power
c. motivation
d. emotion

40. a. achievement

41. Sydney said, "I don't care much about my grades as long as I'm the most popular girl in the class!" What need is this?
a. need for achievement
b. need for affiliation
c. need for power
d. need for sex

41. b. need for affiliation

42. Donald believes all the teaching in the world will not change the fact that he is stupid and of below average intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Donald have?
a. internal locus of control
b. decremental
c. incidental
d. external locus of control

42. d. external locus of control

43. Jack, compared to most other people, appears to need a high level of arousal. He enjoys doing potentially life-threatening hobbies such as sky diving, swimming with sharks, and bungee jumping from bridges. Jack is likely to be a __________.
a. show off
b. mentally unstable
c. sensation seeker
d. unhealthy

43. c. sensation seeker

44. Things that attract or lure people to action are ______________.
a. instincts
b. incentives
c. stimuli
d. bait

44. b. incentives

45. According to Abraham Maslow, developing one's potential to its fullest extent results in ___________.

a. safety
b. self-esteem
c. belongingness
d. self-actualization

45. d. self-actualization

46. Which of these is the correct sequence of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs from the lowest to the highest?
a. physiological, safety, belongingness/love, esteem, self-actualization
b. esteem, safety, self-actualization, belongingness/love, physiological
c. safety, self-actualization, belongingness/love, esteem, physiological
d. safety, physiological, esteem, belongingness/love, self-actualization

46. a. physiological, safety, belongingness/love, esteem, self-actualization

47. Chemicals that can alter consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior are called ___________.

a. legal drugs
b. illegal drugs
c. hallucinogens
d. psychoactive drugs

47. d. psychoactive drugs

48. Which of the following indicators reflects the possibility of physical dependence?

a. obsessing about a drug
b. getting caught with a drug
c. abusing a drug
d. drug tolerance

48. d. drug tolerance

49. Kinsey believed that ________.

a. sexual orientation was an either/or situation
b. sexual orientation was on a continuum
c. sexual orientation was too sensitive to be studied
d. premarital sex was fundamentally destructive to society

49. b. sexual orientation was on a continuum

50. Which is the most socially acceptable form of sexual behavior in most cultures?

a. bisexuality
b. homosexuality
c. heterosexuality
d. All of these three forms are equally acceptable in most cultures.

50. c. heterosexuality

51. According to research, the majority of gay or bisexual college students report they first became aware of their sexual orientation in _____________.

a. high school
b. middle school
c. elementary school
d. before entering school

51. a. high school

52. Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of _______ basic facial expressions of emotion.

a. three
b. five
c. seven
d. nine

52. c. seven

53. Positive psychology can be thought of as ______________.

a. shifting the focus of psychology from Cognitive to Gestalt
b. shifting the focus from achievement to self-actualization
c. shifting the focus from negatives to more positives in psychology while focusing on strengths
d. shifting the focus from the abstract to the tangible

53. c. shifting the focus from negatives to more positives in psychology while focusing on strengths

54. Dr. Lighthead works with her patients to draw from many of their strengths and successes in her therapy sessions. She often stresses the importance of achievements, strengths, and well-being while not dwelling on past issues of abuse, depression, and unmet goals. Based on the description of her work, Dr. Lighthead is likely to utilize ___________ in her sessions.

a. structural psychology
b. positive psychology
c. optimist psychology
d. transient psychology

54. b. positive psychology

55. _________ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.

a. Stress
b. Burnout
c. Dysphoria
d. Distress

55. a. Stress

56. Which of the following are considered emotional, as opposed to mental, symptoms of stress?

a. sleeping irregularity, frequent colds, nausea
b. depression, fear, anger
c. difficulty making decisions, loss of sense of humor, difficulty concentrating on tasks
d. eating too much, smoking or drinking more than usual, hitting people, or throwing things

56. b. depression, fear, anger

57. Events that cause a stress reaction are referred to as _____________.

a. hassles
b. catastrophies
c. eustresses
d. stressors

57. d. stressors

58. _________ occurs when people experience unpleasant stressors.

a. Acute stress
b. Eustress
c. Distress
d. Catastrophic stress

58. c. Distress

59. _________ is the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being.

a. Acute stress
b. Eustress
c. Distress
d. Catastrophic stress

59. b. Eustress

60. Which of the following is the term used to describe unpredictable, large-scale events that create a great deal of stress and feelings of threat?

a. major life events
b. catastrophes
c. hassles
d. eustress

60. b. catastrophes

61. Ali, a war veteran, has had nightmares, flashbacks, and anxiety attacks for the past three years. Ali is most likely suffering from __________.

a. acute stress disorder
b. external locus of control
c. catastrophic stress
d. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

61. d. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

62. Researchers have found an association between daily hassles and ___________.

a. colds and headaches
b. cancer and heart disease
c. hypertension and obesity
d. heart disease and schizophrenia

62. a. colds and headaches

63. An urgent demand or expectation for our behavior that comes from an outside source is called ________.

a. anxiety
b. pressure
c. overload
d. cognitive dissonance

63. b. pressure

64. The _______control one has, the _______the degree of stress.

a. more; greater
b. less; greater
c. less; lower
d. Control has nothing to do with stress.

64. b. less; greater

65. ______ occurs when a person is blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.

a. Uncontrollability
b. Conflict
c. Pressure
d. Frustration

65. d. Frustration

66. Desiring to purchase a book and finding it is out of stock is an example of a(n)________.

a. external frustration
b. internal conflict
c. external conflict
d. internal frustration

66. a. external frustration

67. All of the following are sources of stress EXCEPT______.

a. pressure
b. frustration
c. uncontrollability
d. aggression

67. d. aggression

68. _________are habitual targets of displaced aggression.

a. Scapegoats
b. Internal conflicts
c. Relationships
d. Bullies

68. a. Scapegoats

69. In a(n) __________conflict, a person must choose between two desirable goals.

a. approach-avoidance
b. avoidance-avoidance
c. approach-approach
d. double approach-avoidance

69. c. approach-approach

70. A conflict in which a person must choose between two undesirable routes to a goal or goals is called__________.

a. approach-avoidance
b. avoidance-avoidance
c. approach-approach
d. multiple approach-avoidance

70. b. avoidance-avoidance

71. Which of the following statements best encapsulates the relationship between stress and physical illness according to psychoneuroimmunologists?

a. Stress compromises the body's immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to illness.
b. Stress increases the production of natural killer cells, which causes cell death and leads to illness.
c. Stress causes high blood pressure, heart disease, and cancer.
d. Stress has no direct relationship to physical illness, though physicians tell us that these things are related so that we will be more willing to take unnecessary medications.

71. a. Stress compromises the body's immune system, leaving a person vulnerable to illness.

72. People living under stressful conditions tend to get sick more often than they would otherwise. How do researchers in psychoneuroimmunology explain this phenomenon?

a. The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases.
b. The stress response in the long run leads to a lowering of the heart rate, which makes the heart inefficient.
c. The stress response makes muscles stronger, which places a greater burden on the heart and respiratory systems.
d. The body tends to adapt to the constant call for the stress response and, thus, future responses are not as strong as before.

72. a. The stress response reduces immune system functioning, thus making us more vulnerable to diseases.

73. Research on the effects of stress on the immune system suggests which of the following?

a. The immune system is not affected by stress.
b. Only certain types of stressors affect the immune system.
c. Suppression of immune system functioning by stress always ends immediately after the stressful period ends.
d. Suppression of immune system functioning by stress can apparently continue even after the stress itself is over.

73. d. Suppression of immune system functioning by stress can apparently continue even after the stress itself is over.

74. Stress has been shown to put people at a higher risk for________.

a. unplanned pregnancy
b. heart attack and stroke
c. promotions at work
d. schizophrenia

74. b. heart attack and stroke

75. A person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, easily annoyed, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger is said to be exhibiting a ______ personality.

a. Type A
b. Type S
c. Type B
d. Type C

75. a. Type A

76. People who respond to life events with a laid back, relaxed, easygoing attitude, and are slow to anger are said to have a ____________ personality.

a. Type A
b. Type S
c. Type B
d. Type C

76. c. Type B

77. A person who thrives on stress but lacks the anger and hostility typical of some others who have the Type A personality is said to have a _________personality.

a. Type C
b. Type B
c. hardy
d. optmistic

77. c. hardy

78. Which statement about motivation is TRUE?

a. Motivation energizes and directs behavior.
b. We are always aware of motivational processes.
c. There is only one type of motivation.
d. Two people motivated by the same factor will satisfy that motive through similar means.

78. a. Motivation energizes and directs behavior.

79. Some psychologists believe that an organism's behavior is motivated by the need to achieve a state of balance in which the body functions effectively—a state called ______.

a. unbalance
b. acquiescence
c. propinquity
d. homeostasis

79. d. homeostasis

80. In the section "Three Types of Needs," which of the following was not discussed?

a. achievement
b. affiliation
c. power
d. sex

80. d. sex

81. Jack said, "I want to rule the world." What type of need is this?

a. need for achievement
b. need for affiliation
c. need for power
d. need for sex

81. c. need for power

82. According to Carol Dweck, these types of people believe intelligence is fixed, unchanging, and independent.

a. internal in locus of control
b. decremental
c. incidental
d. external in locus of control

82. d. external in locus of control

83. According to Carol Dweck, people with this type of control believe intelligence is changeable and can be shaped by experience.

a. internal locus of control
b. decremental
c. incidental
d. external locus of control

83. a. internal locus of control

84. In arousal theory, people are said to have a (an) _________ level of tension.

a. ultimate
b. lower
c. optimal
d. high

84. c. optimal

85. The Yerkes-Dodson Law says _________________.

a. performance is affected by levels of physical arousal
b. the more money you make the better your job will be
c. nausea from bad food causes a reluctance to eat that food again
d. performance on tests is better in the morning

85. a. performance is affected by levels of physical arousal

86. Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes Dodson Law?

a. task instructions
b. gender of person doing the task
c. age of person doing the task
d. difficulty of task

86. d. difficulty of task

87. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person's behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by _______.

a. cognition
b. mental processes
c. the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
d. psychology

87. c. the real, imagined, or implied presence of others

88. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on ______.

a. people's susceptibility to clever advertising
b. the influences of the social world in which we exist
c. abnormal behavior
d. conformity

88. b. the influences of the social world in which we exist

89. Which of the following is NOT a form of social influence?

a. conformity
b. compliance
c. obedience
d. altruism

89. d. altruism

90. "Look! Up in the sky! It's a bird. It's a plane. It's Superman!" If you looked up, would you be conforming?

a. Yes. You would be looking up because you were told to do so.
b. No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not being told to do so.
c. Yes. Conformity means doing what you are told or else.
d. No. Looking up only means you are curious.

90. b. No. Conformity requires that you base your behavior on what other people are doing, not being told to do so.

91. Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express very negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince's behavior is an example of ____________________.

a. compliance
b. persuasion
c. conformity
d. obedience

91. c. conformity

92. Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one's own preference, is called ______.

a. obedience
b. submission
c. conformity
d. compliance

92. c. conformity

193. In what way is compliance different from conformity?

a. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.
b. Conformity and compliance are very similar; the distinction depends on whether one is a male or female.
c. Conformity involves direct group pressure for change, whereas compliance involves orders or commands.
d. Compliance involves eliciting reaction on the part of group members, whereas conformity involves subliminal persuasion.

93. a. Compliance is a response to a direct request, whereas conformity is a response to indirect social pressure.

94. Which aspect of culture tends to decrease rates of conformity?

a. sex-role stereotypes
b. low socioeconomic status
c. high level of individualism
d. high levels of societal dependence

94. c. high level of individualism

95. When members of a group give priority to the cohesiveness of the group over the facts of a situation, they are engaging in what social psychologists call _____.

a. groupthink
b. mass thought
c. consumerism
d. solidarity think

95. a. groupthink

96. Close, friendly groups usually work well together, but they may face a problem involving an extreme form of conformity called ______________.

a. fundamental attribution error
b. groupthink
c. generational identity
d. self-serving bias

96. b. groupthink

97. Behavior that is initiated or changed in response to a request as opposed to a command or direct order is an example of _______.

a. obedience
b. compliance
c. conformity
d. persuasion

97. b. compliance

98. ______ is a change of behavior in response to a direct request.

a. Conformity
b. Obedience
c. Compliance
d. Deindividuation

98. c. Compliance

99. What term is used to describe compliance with an initial small request followed by compliance with a larger request?

a. risky shift
b. foot-in-the-door effect
c. door-in-the-face effect
d. polarization phenomenon

99. b. foot-in-the-door effect

100. The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a small request is called the ______ technique.

a. lowball
b. door-in-the-face
c. foot-in-the-door
d. response cue

100. c. foot-in-the-door

101. "Jeremy, can you possibly give me a ride to the airport this Sunday," your friend Ben asks. Not thinking that this is a big deal, you agree to do this favor for Ben. "Oh, that's great! Thanks so much. And by the way, I forgot that the plane leaves at 8:30 am so I'll have to be at the airport by 6:30 am. Pick me up at 6:00. See you then," Ben adds. You are still likely to do the favor for Ben because you have just been a victim of the _____________ technique.

a. lowball
b. norm of reciprocity
c. door-in-the-face
d. obedience

101. a. lowball

102. The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a larger one is called the ______ technique.

a. lowball
b. door-in-the-face
c. foot-in-the-door
d. bait-and-switch

102. b. door-in-the-face

103. A dealer persuades a customer to buy a new car by reducing the price to well below that of his competitors. Once the customer has agreed to buy the car, the terms of the sale are shifted by lowering the value of the trade-in and requiring the purchase of expensive extra equipment. Now the car costs well above the current market rate. This is an example of the ______ technique.

a. lowball
b. foot-in-the-door
c. primacy
d. bait-and-switch

103. a. lowball

104. One form of the norm of reciprocity is when the merchant offers more than the consumer asks for. This is called the ___________ technique.

a. that's-all-folks
b. one-mo'-time
c. that's-not-all
d. there's-still-more

104. c. that's-not-all

105. A social psychologist has been invited to give a community lecture on the importance of Milgram's research. He asks a social psychology class for suggested titles. Which of the following titles might they suggest as the most appropriate?

a. "Obedience and Aggression Are Inborn"
b. "Do Not Underestimate the Power of Perceived Authority"
c. "Training in Ethics Can Overcome the Pull of Obedience"
d. "Make a Small Request First and the World Can Be Yours"

105. b. "Do Not Underestimate the Power of Perceived Authority"

106. A response, either positive or negative, toward a certain person, idea, object, or situation is called _____________.

a. bystander apathy
b. an attitude
c. groupthink
d. conformity

106. b. an attitude

107. What do we call judgments about people, situations, objects, or thoughts?

a. cognitions
b. stereotypes
c. attitudes
d. attributions

107. c. attitudes

108. Attitudes are __________________.

a. innate
b. generally positive
c. learned
d. unchangeable

108. c. learned

109. An attitude has ______ major components.

a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

109. c. three

110. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?

a. thoughts
b. feelings
c. goals
d. behaviors

110. c. goals

111. You want to visit Argentina but your attitude about Argentina is changing as you read the news about the kidnappings that have occurred there. Which component of attitude is being affected?

a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. situational

111. b. cognitive

112. Roberta is trying to decide whether to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her trust of the candidate represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.

a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. situational

112. a. affective

113. Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. Based on what she has read about him, she has concluded that he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions. Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much that she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her sending a donation to the campaign represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.

a. affective
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. situational

113. c. behavioral

114. Attitude formation is the result of a number of influences. What they have in common is that they are all forms of ________________.

a. learning
b. intuition
c. reinforcement
d. conformity

114. a. learning

115. "I hate Walt Disney World. Whenever I take the kids there, I realize how much I hate that place." Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example?

a. direct contact
b. direct instruction
c. vicarious conditioning
d. observational learning

115. a. direct contact

116. Jaquan's parents have been talking to him about the negative aspects of drugs ever since he was a youngster. Now that he is a teenager, he knows that some of his friends smoke marijuana. At a party one night, a friend offers Jaquan a joint. Jaquan declines the offer, stating that he hates drugs. Even though he has never tried drugs to form his own opinion of them, which method of attitude formation has kept him from making a mistake?

a. direct contact
b. direct instruction
c. interaction with others
d. vicarious conditioning

116. b. direct instruction

117. Kerry's positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example?

a. direct contact
b. direct instruction
c. interaction with others
d. classical conditioning

117. c. interaction with others

118. What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior?

a. enticement
b. persuasion
c. conversion
d. affectance

118. b. persuasion

119. Which communicator would likely be the most persuasive?

a. an attractive person who is an expert
b. a moderately attractive person who is an expert
c. an attractive person who has moderate expertise
d. a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise

119. a. an attractive person who is an expert

120. A state of tension that occurs when a person's attitudes do not match the person's actions is called __________.

a. cognitive dissonance
b. the validity effect
c. the fundamental attribution error
d. routinization

120. a. cognitive dissonance

121. Which one of the following activities will NOT reduce cognitive dissonance?

a. changing the behavior to match the attitude
b. changing the thought to justify the behavior
c. developing new thoughts to justify the behavior
d. continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts

121. d. continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts

122. Luis picks up a pack of cigarettes and reads, "Cigarette smoking is harmful to your health." Which one of the following statements leads one to believe Luis is actually having cognitive dissonance?

a. "I've been smoking my whole life and I don't have health problems."
b. "No one I know who smokes is sick."
c. "I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can't stop."
d. "That is not true. Cigarettes are not that harmful."

122. c. "I know these cigarettes are killing me but I just can't stop."

123.Which of the following is an example of cognitive dissonance?

a. You are a lousy cook but you keep trying different recipes.
b. You believe that reality TV is for morons but are addicted to American Idol and watch every episode.
c. You dislike doing exercise but do it anyway to improve your health.
d. You are polite and civil to people you dislike.

123. b. You believe that reality TV is for morons but are addicted to American Idol and watch every episode.

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