Identify the Etruscans and describe and explain the impact they had upon the Romans
The Etruscans were an Indo-European people who migrated into Rome and mingled with the Romans. Some of the Roman kings were Etruscans and some of the Etruscan mettalurgy transferred to Rome.
Describe the establishment and the political strcture of the Roman republic
The republic replaced the kingdom so they wouldn't ever have another Etruscan king.The republic had a senate that had patricians and aristocrats with two main consuls. these people were elected by the assembly. this structure of only wealthy men in power made the less wealthy classes angry
Explain the reasons for the expansion of the Roman republic
Rome faced threats from the Etruscans, which made them have control over all of Italy. The iron mines in Italy allowed Rome to have more power and establish military colonies , emerging as the predominant power. Rome wanted to expand trade, which was why it started the Punic wars.
List and explain the causes, major events and effects of the Punic Wars
The punic wars were caused by trade struggles between Carthage and Rome over Sicily. So, the Romans gained control of Carthage. The battles resulted in the Roman gain of territory in Africa, spain, and france, which was major for colinization and trade.
List and explain the problems that resulted from Rome's expansion following the Punic Wars
The Roman involvement in the Mediterranean made them have conflict with pirates, Hellenic territory, Seleucids, and Antigonids, leading to more wars and allies.
Describe the reforms of the Gracchi brothers
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two brothers who wanted to limit the amount of land that any individual could hold to decrease latifundia
Explain how the Roman Repulic ended and how Rome was transformed to an empire
Rome had a series of generals in control who had plebeian followers. This led to civil war in Rome, with Gaius Marius. Then Sulla, another general, followed. Then Caesar conquered Rome and proclaimed himself dictator for life, centralizing the government and making many reforms. Caesar was then assasinated, and his nephew Augustus successfully took over the government (monarchy disguised as a republic)
Describe where the Romans expanded during the imperial period; describe the role that roads, trade and law have during this period of expansion
Rome continued to expand around the mediterranean. Networks of roads allowed armies and messages to be moved easily from one side of the empire to the other. Law was able to be created under the political stability. This law allowed the lands to be integrated and unify the empire. Trade connected the empire and allowed job specialization and access to resources that different regions might not have.
Explain how Roman social classes, cities and economy were transformed by the expansion of the Roman Empire
Agricultural production developed commercial agriculture and economic specilization. The cities hadf new resources and wealth which allowed them to construct temples, bathhouses, public buildings, stadiums, and aqueducts. This caused people to flock to the cities. During the time period roman families developed paterfamilias. New classes of wealthy merchants rivaled the old nobility. Poverty also increased as did slaves.
Explain how poverty of the masses and the institution of slavery burdened and weakened the Roman empire
The large masses of poor people often became loyal to ambitious generals, which weakened the empire, or sold themselves into slavery. Discontent among the slaves led to several revolts.
Describe the state religion of the Romans and why so many groups found it spiritually empty
The original Roman religion was a lot like the Greek religion with the same multiple dieties. These gods directed the lives ov humans and required attention and sacrifice. It was spiritually empty because it offered no salvation from hard work.
Explain the attractions of the Etruscan mystery religions to the citizens of Rome
The new religions of salvation like the cult of Mithras and the Cult of Isis were monothesistic and offered salvation . These religions were ecstatic and mysterious and could be adopted to ones own interests.
Describe and explain the relationship between Judaism and the Roman Empire
The Romans embraced the Jews as long as they paid their taxes and refrained from rebellion. But, the Jews refused to worship the emperor, so they became upset and rebellious, making the tensions.
Explain how Diocletian's reforms tried to prevent the collapse of the Roman Empire
Diocletian divided the empire into two administrative districts ruled by tetrarchs to try and deal with the size of the empire and centralize the power. Diocletian also strengthened the currency to dampen inflation and centralized the military.
Explain why and where the Germanic tribes invaded the Roman empire
The Visigoths settled near rome, but were not allowed inside the empire. When the Visigoths were threatened by the Huns, the Visigoths and other Germanic peoples streamed into Rome, establishing settlements and sacking the city.
Explain the overall causes for the collapse of the Roman Empire
Rome had a lack of martial spirit, its size was very big and hard to deal with, and the external pressures were too much for teh empire to deal with.