scramble for africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
(reigned 1865-1909) King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State, exploited aftrcan natives
berlin confrence 1884
a meeting of the Euopean countries to decide how to break up Africa into seperate colonies
concept that the European powers agreed to at the Berlin Conference that stated that Europe would wholeheartedly go after colonies in Africa while not allowing one country to monopolize the entire continent. This states that you can't call "dibs" on a territory, you actually have to be there.
An exception to the rule of easy conquest
american inventor of the machine gun, 1884
Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.
Whites who immigrated from Europe(mostly netherlands) and settled in south africa during early 19th cent
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe, made his weatlh through expansion of british power
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
spheres of influence
territorial influence of one nation over another weaker nation not necessarily occupied by the stronger nation
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation. ex: foreigners were expemt from chinese law enforcement when they visited china
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905
It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden, the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Weaker colonies/countries die off (social darwinism)
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
the white man's burden
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism. saw the world as Eurocentric and criticized the "white man's" need to westernize other cultures.
survival of the fittest
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields: heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, anthropology, founded eugenics
Kinder, Kuche, Kirche
Children, Kitchen, Church - traditional role ascribed to women
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924) (Lenin)