APUSH CH 9
|Jacksonian Democracy||challenge to founding fathers' ideals - equality of polit./economic opportunity for white men against "american aristocracy"|
|Changes in Electoral Politics (1830s)|| "Broadening of the franchise"|
"Universal" manhood suffrage gradually adopted, property requirement lifted by the states one by one. the newer states (west) didn't have one to begin with.
effects: changed the way elections were conducted and percentage of voters increased
|What motivated the voters to vote?|| 1) Slavery (like with MO) - dividing issue|
2) economics (bank issues, panics)
|Democratic reforms/changes in elections|| campaigns adopted banners, slogans, BBQs|
nomination replaced caucus and presidential electors mostly chosen by the people.
-parties wrote platforms
|Dorr Rebellion||RI's conservative constit. blocked most means of reform for expanding electorate. in 1840, Thomas Dorr and followers formed a "people's Party", held a convention and drafted a new state constit. approved by popular vote but refused by legis. who then drafted another new consit. to the ppl - narrowly defeated. Dorr's followers tried to set up own gov't following Dorr's constit. and competed with existing gov't . seen as rebels and rebellion quickly defeated - led to new constit. that finally expanded electorate.|
|Legitimization of Party||- believed to be more unstable/undemocratic to just have one party.|
-multiple Parties seen as essential to democracy- came from and rooted in the people, opposition gave each party a sense of purpose and reminder to remain responsive to the will of the people, they would "check/balance" one other.
later on 2ND TWO PARTY SYSTEM accepted as permanent - developed between between Whigs and Democrats (1832)
|Election of 1828 ("Jacksonian Rev.")|| (1st term, before all of this ^)|
- Repubs. split between National republicans ( JQ adams) and democratic republicans (Jackson)
- nasty campaign with exaggerated allegations on both sides
- South, west, and Laborers in the east voted for Jackson - he won
|Jackson's 1st Term/Inauguration|| The "inaugural brawl"|
thousands of americans flooded the white house during jackson's public reception to meet him, made a mess. seen as joyous event b/c emphasized Jackson's claim to be president of the common man. "Mob"
|Jacksonian Democrats|| - ppl from south, west, eastern laborers, immigrants|
desires: equal polit./econom. opportunity for all white males (closing the bank, taking away african american rights), also limited gov't but strong union
opposed: "aristocracy", "privilege", disliked banks and corporations - catered to the elite
|The Spoils System and Rotation in Office||Jackson believed that all ordinary white americans could do gov't jobs, so he replaced some longstanding gov't workers (entrenched elite) with his supporters as was very overt about it.|
|The Kitchen Cabinet||13 informal advisors appointed by jackson, in addition to the formal president's cabinet|
|The Political Convention||1832 national party convention held to renominate jackson, hoping to replace congressional caucus (congressmen choose candidates).|
- considered democratic triumph b/c power seen as coming from ppl and not aristocratic caucus and limited power of entrenched elites. didnt completely transfer true power to the ppl, convention members not really "common men".
|Samuel Swartout||"swarted out" with $1 million - one of jackson's appointees from the spoils system|
|John C. Calhoun and the Theory of Nullification||Calhoun's (jackson's VP) home state of SC threatened secession in response to the tariff of abominations, so developed theory of nullification to appease them: (inspired by VA and KY resolves) since fed. gov't is creation of the states, states have the right to nullify acts of congress that are unconstitutional|
|Martin Van Buren||Secretary of State for Jackson, later president. Also a apart of the Kitchen cabinet and had the most influence over Jackson as an advisor.|
|Peggy Eaton Affair||O'Neale had affair with Senator Eaton (who became Sec. of war), and when her husband died, she married eaton, making her a cabinet wife. Other cabinet wifes refused to socially accept her, but jackson demanded that they do so. Calhoun, pressured by his wife, said no, but Van Buren (widower) befriended the Eatons which brought him closer to Jackson|
effects: helped influence Jackson to choose Van buren to succeed him as president instead of Calhoun.
|The Webster-Hayne Debate||1829 bill to curb sale of public lands in the west (seen as threat to NE), proposed by obscure NE Senator. |
- wouldn't have actually passed, but still caused trouble
- Senator Robert Hayne of SC sided with bill's opponents and supported nullification if it did pass, south ganging up vs. NE out of remaining anger over the tariff favoring NE
-Daniel Webster of MA responded: defended NE patriotism, opposed nullification if it did pass, wanted to retain "harmony" betw. MA and SC
- sectional tensions turned issue into 9 day debate over power of nat'l govt vs. states' rights
-webster: "Liberty, Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"
(van buren valued liberty more than union, further separation from jackson)
|Nullification Crisis||South Carolinians responded angrily to another tariff seen just as bad as tariff of abominations, summoned a convention to nullify it.|
Jackson saw nullification as treason, proposed a force bill allowing use of milit. force to make sure acts of congress are obeyed. Both acts passed on same day.
Senator Henry Clay Avoided crisis by proposing compromise: tariff will be lowered gradually.
SC repealed nullification of tariff, but also nullified the force bill to have the last word. meant nothing b/c the compromise left force bill with no purpose.
|Changing Attitudes toward Indians||white prev. considered Indians "noble savages" who had inherent dignity, but by 19th century developed more hostile attitude especially among whites in west, simply "savages" and uncivilizable. |
wanted removal: feared continued contact with indians + expanding white settlements would lead to endless violence, whites wanted the land.
(only Supreme Court had legal authority to negotiate)
|Black Hawk War, 1831-1832||Old Northwest - Illinois|
- Black Hawk's followers refused to accept treaty ceding land to IL signed by rival tribe --> occupied empty IL lands. IL assembled militia to repel "invaders"
-notable for violence by white milit. force, attacked even when Chief Black Hawk was surrendering and killed Indians fleeing battle
|The "Five Civilized Tribes"|| successful agricultural* society of indian tribes in the South. Cherokees of GA created most sophisticated culture with written language and formal Constitution forming Independent Cherokee Nation 1827.|
- under pressure from both states and nat'l gov'ts to relocate
|1830 Indian Removal Act||act approved by Jackson to appropriate $ to finance federal negotiations w/ tribes in order to relocate them West|
|Cherokee Resistance|| In GA Sup. Court decisions of Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831) and Worcester v Georgia (1832) seemed to protect tribal lands, but Jackson Dismissed them.|
-1835 treaty signed with minority tribe in Cherokee nation ceding all land to GA, but majority of Cherokees refused to recognize its legitimacy.
|Cherokee Removal/Trail of Tears (1838)||Jackson sent army under General Winfield Scott to drive all Cherokees westward, some fled to NC where gov't provided a reservation. |
most made long arduous trek to "Indian Territory" (OK) and many died before getting there- The Trail of Tears.
effects: almost all SE tribes relocated and ceded their land in exchange for $ and land on reservations in an unknown place.
|Jackson and the National Bank||opposed it- concentrated too much power in the federal gov't and seen as an aristocratic institution benefiting the elite over the common man. Supported hard money faction|
|The National Bank||Nicholas Biddle= president of national bank - became the most powerful and far reaching institution in the country and was the only place where the gov't could deposit its funds. It gave credit, issued bank notes (currency) and restrained the state banks.|
|Hard and Soft money||2 groups of opposition to the Bank|
1) soft money: wanted more currency in circulation thru bank notes unsupported by specie. opposed bank b/c it restrained state banks from issuing notes freely.
2) hard money: (jackson) condemned bank notes, gold and silver only basis for money, more suspicious of rapid economic growth
|Jackson's Veto||Biddle gained support of Daniel Webster and Henry Clay, who persuaded him to apply to congress for renewal of bank's charter in 1832,ahead of expiration date, to put focus on it for next election. Congress passed charter but Jackson vetoed, Clay failed to win support for presidency and Jackson re-elected.|
|Jackson destroys the Bank||since he couldn't abolish the bank until charter expired, he weakened it by removing gov't deposits and placing them into a # of state "pet" banks. Biddle tried to fight back by calling in loans and raising interest to show bank's resources stretched too thin w/o gov't deposits ---> recession. Jackson didn't back down and Biddle forced to = lost chances at rechartering the bank.|
|The Taney Court|| Jackson's next target = Supreme court|
Roger Taney: sec. of treasury who put gov't deposits in pet banks who became chief supreme court justice
Charles River Bridge vs. warren bridge: (two MA companies - one w/ longstanding State charter to build toll bridge with monopoly of bridge traffic. other granted by legis. permission to build toll free bridge)
- gov't duty to promote happiness supersedes state contracts, opposing the monopoly - opposite of Marshall.
|The Whig Party||began as opponents of jackson who united during his 1st term, named after opponents of the King's power in GB.|
who: mostly from east, merchants, manufacturers, evangelical protestants
desires: strong federal gov't and internal improvements, supported industry and commerce
cautious of: western expansion
|The Great Triumvirate|| Whigs had no one central leader, instead 3 regional leaders|
Clay in the West, Webster in the North, Calhoun in the South (in theory- nullification didn't help him)
- "organized disorganization"