Language of Medicine- Chapter 16

118 terms by fischer42

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adipocyte

fat cell

albino

person with skin deficient in pigment (melanin)

apocrine sweat gland

one of the large dermal exocrine glands located in the axilla and genital areas. It secretes sweat that, in action with bacteria, is responsible for human body odor.

basal layer

deepest region of the epidermis; it gives rise to all the epidermal cells.

collagen

structural protein found in the skin and connective tissue

cuticle

band of epidermis at the base and sides of the nail plate

dermis

middle layer of the skin

eccrine sweat gland

most numerous swet-producing exocrine gland in the skin

epidermis

outermost layer of skin

epithelium

layer of skin cells forming the outer and inner surfaces of the body

hair follicle

sac within which each hair grows

integumentary system

the skin and its accessory structures such as hair and nails

keratin

hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails. Keratin means horn and commonly is found in the horns of animals.

lunula

the half-moon-shaped, whitish area at the base of a nail

melanin

major skin pigment. It is formed by melanocytes in the epidermis

paronychium

soft tissue surrounding the nail border

pore

tiny opening on the surface of the skin

sebaceous gland

oil-secreting gland in the dermis that is associated with hair follicles

sebum

oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands

squamous epithelium

flat, scale-like cells composing the eopidermis

stratified

arranged in layers

stratum

a layer (of cells)

stratum corneum

outermost layer of the epidermis, which consists of flattened, keratinized cells

subcutaneous layer

innermost layer of the skin, containing fat tissue

adip/o

fat (root)

albin/o

white (root)

caus/o

burn, burning (root)

cauter/o

heat, burn (root)

cutane/o

skin (root)

anthrac/o

black (as coal) (root)

chlor/o

green (root)

cirrh/o

tawny yellow (root)

cyan/o

blue (root)

eosin/o

rosy (root)

erythr/o

red (root)

jaund/o

yellow (root)

leuk/o

white (root)

lute/o

yellow (root)

melan/o

black (root)

poli/o

gray (root)

xanth/o

yellow (root)

derm/o or dermat/o

skin (root)

diaphor/o

profuse sweating (root)

erythem/o or erythemat/o

redness (root)

hidr/o

sweat (root)

ichthy/o

dry, scaly (fish-like) (root)

kerat/o

hard (root)

lip/o

fat (root)

melan/o

black (root)

myc/o

fungus (fungi include yeasts, molds, and muschrooms)

onych/o

nail (root)

phyt/o

plant (root)

pil/o

hair, hair follicle

py/o

pus (root)

rhytid/o

wrinkle (root)

seb/o

sebum (oily secretion from sebaceous glands)

squam/o

scale-like (root)

steat/o

fat (root)

trich/o

hair (root)

ungu/o

nail (root)

xanth/o

yellow (root)

xer/o

dry (root)

crust

collection of dried serum and cellular debris

cyst

thick-walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material

erosion

wearing away or loss of epidermis

fissure

groove or crack-like sore

macule

flat lesion measuring less than 1 cm in diameter

nodule

solid, round or oval elevated lesion 1 cm or more in diameter

papule

small (less than 1 cm in diameter), solid elevation of the skin

polyp

growth extending from the surface of mucous membrane

pustule

papule containing pus

ulcer

open sore on the skin or mucous membranes (deeper than an erosion)

vesicle

small collection (papule) of clear fluid (serum); blister

wheal

smooth, edematous (swollen) papule or plaque that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin

alopecia

absence of hair from areas where it normally grows

ecchymosis, ecchymoses

bluish-purplish mark (bruise) on the skin

petechia, petechiae

small, pinpoint hemorrhage

pruritus

itching

urticaria (hives)

acute allergic reaction in which red, round wheals develop on the skin

acne

chronic papular and pustular eruption of the skin with increased production of sebum

burns

injury to tissues caused by heat contact

cellulitis

diffuse, acute infection of the skin marked by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling

eczema

inflammatory skin disease with erythematous, papulovesicular lesions

exanthematous viral diseases

rash (exathem) of the skin due to a viral infection

gangrene

death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply

impetigo

bacterial inflammatory skin disease characterized by vesicles, pustules, and crusted-over lesions

psoriasis

chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales

scabies

contagious, parasitic infection of the skin with intense pruritus

scleroderma

chronic progressive disease of the skin and internal organs with hardening aand shrinking of connective tissue

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in skin, joints, and internal organs

tinea

infection of the skin caused by a fungus

vitiligo

loss of pigment (depigmentation) in areas of the skin (milk-white patches)

callus

increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction

keloid

hypertrophied, thickened scar developing after trauma or surgical incision

keratosis

thickened and rough lesion of the epidermis; associated with aging or skin damage

leukoplakia

white, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek

nevus, nevi

pigmented lesion of the skin

verruca

epidermal growth (wart) caused by a virus

basal cell carcinoma

malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis

squamous cell carcinoma

malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells in the epidermis

malignant melanoma

cancerous growth composed of melanocytes

kaposi sarcoma

malignant, vascular, neoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules

bacterial analyses

samples of skin are examined fro presence of microorganisms

fungal tests

scrapings from skin lesions, hair specimens, or nail clippings are sent to a laboratory for culture and microscopic examination

cryosurgery

use of subfreezing temperature via liquid nitrogen application to destroy tissue

curettage

use of a sharp dermal curette to scrape away a skin lesion

electrodesiccation

tissue is destroyed by burning with an electric spark

Mohs micrographic surgery

thin layers of malignant tissue are removed, and each is examined under a microscope to check for adequate extent of the resection

skin biopsy

suspected malignant skin lesions are removed and examined microscopically by a pathologist

skin test

substances are injected intradermally or applied to the skin, and results are observed

ABCDE

assymetry (of shape), border (irregularity), color (variation within one lesion), diameter (greater than 6mm), evolution (change)- characteristics associated with melanoma

Derm

dermatology

DLE

discoid lupus erythematosus

PPD

purified protein derivative- used in skin test for tuberculosis

PUVA

psoralen- ultraviolet A light therapy; treatment for psoriasis and other skin conditions

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SC

subcutaneous

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