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J.F.C Fuller/ Basil Liddell Hart

Birg gen/capt, fought in ww1. first to use tanks in mass assault w/ great success. mass at one point then fan out. protection and speed.

billy mitchell/ giulio douhet

air power! douhet advocates bombing

benito mussolini

becomes absolute dictator and one party state. he rules everything. the italians are frustrated

Fascism

is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology

joseph stalin

(1879-1953) USSR

collectivization

need to supply themselves with food

five year plan

Stalin introduced the Five Year Plans. This brought all industry under state control and all industrial development was planned by the state. The state would decide what would be produced, how much would be produced and where it should be produced. An organisation called Gosplan was created to plan all this out.

Beer hall putsch (1923)

when stalin gained power

mein kampf

book written by hitler with his ideologies

lebensraum

Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples.

spanish civil war

1936-1939

anschluss

13 march 1938 the occupation and annexation of austria in germany

sudetenland

20th century for the northern, southwest and western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia being within Czechoslovakia.

neville chamberlain

british gave hitler appeasement. give him what he wants

munich conference

Here Hitler met with representatives of the heads of state from France, the United Kingdom, and Italy.
An agreement was reached that Hitler could annex the Sudetenland provided he promised not to invade anywhere else. All four countries signed the agreement: Adolf Hitler (Germany), Neville Chamberlain (UK), Edouard Daladier (France), and Benito Mussolini (Italy).

polish corridor

hitler wants the polish corridor. they resist. he is happy with the aggression

german-soviet non-aggression pact

the nazis and communists agree on a non aggression pact. they will split poland. stalin will take baltic republics (lithuania)

blitzkrieg

mass tanks in one area. germans wreck stuff. french dont see that they are going around maginot line

phony war

that was marked by a lack of major military operations by the Western Allies against the German Reich. War was declared by each side, but no Western power had committed to launching a significant land offensive, notwithstanding the terms of the Anglo-Polish military alliance and the Franco-Polish military alliance, which obliged the United Kingdom and France to assist Poland.

maginot line

was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defences, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in light of its experience in World War I, and in the run-up to World War II. Generally the term describes only the defences facing Germany

operation gelb

german invasion plan

The Battle of the Ardennes

was one of the opening battles of World War I. It took place from August 21-23, 1914, part of the Battle of the Frontiers. german victory

Battle of Dunkirk

was the defence and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe from 26 May-4 June 1940

operation sea lion

as Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during the Second World War, beginning in 1940. To have had any chance of success, however, the operation would have required air and naval supremacy over the English Channel. With the German defeat in the Battle of Britain, Sea Lion was postponed indefinitely on 17 September 1940 and never carried out

battle of britain

is the name given to the World War II air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940. The objective of the campaign was to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), especially Fighter Command.
fought entirely by air forces. hitler loses

axis alliance

germany, italy, japan

destruction at taranto

The Royal Navy launched the first all-aircraft ship-to-ship naval attack in history, flying a small number of obsolescent biplane torpedo bombers from an aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean Sea. The attack struck the battle fleet of the Regia Marina at anchor in the harbor of Taranto utilizing aerial torpedoes despite the shallow depth of the harbor. The devastation wrought by the British carrier-launched aircraft on the large Italian warships was the beginning of the rise of the power of naval aviation, over the big guns of battleships.

Operation Barbarossa

was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 194

Leningrad

was a prolonged military operation resulting from the failure of the German Army Group North to capture Leningrad

Battle of Moscow

The Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler's attack on Moscow, capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the largest Soviet city. Moscow was one of the primary military and political objectives for Axis forces in their invasion of the Soviet Union.

Georgii Zhukov

was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played a pivotal role in leading the Red Army through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and other nations from the Axis Powers' occupation and conquer Germany's capital, Berlin. He is the most decorated general in the history of the Russian Empire,[citation needed] the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

Afrika korps

Afrika Korps as it was popularly called, was the German expeditionary force in Libya and Tunisia during the North African Campaign of World War II. The reputation of the Afrika Korps is synonymous with that of its first commander Erwin Rommel

El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein marked a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. The battle took place over 20 days from 23 October - 11 November 1942.

operation torch

was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started on 8 November 1942.

Battle of Kursk

The Battle of Kursk took place when German and Soviet forces confronted each other on the Eastern Front during World War II in the vicinity of the city of Kursk

Allied powers

any country against germany, italy and germany

battle of the north atlantic

huge north atlantic battle. core of the north atlantic. large battle. won by the allies

combined bombing offensive

us and britain bomb key german targets

hamburg

area attacked during the combined bombing offensive

Operation Bagration

the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation[11] during World War II, which cleared German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland between 22 June and 19 August 1944. destroyed the german army group center

D-Day

Allied invasion of Normandy, in Operation Overlord, during World War II. [normandy]

Operation Cobra

First United States Army seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II.

Falaise

Falaise within which Army Group B, consisting of the German Seventh Army and the Fifth Panzer Army became encircled by the advancing Western Allies, the battle is also referred to as the battle of the Falaise Gap after the corridor which the Germans sought to maintain to allow their escape

battle of the bulge ardennes

was a major German offensive (die Ardennenoffensive), launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name (Bataille des Ardennes), and France and Luxembourg on the Western Front.

anglo-us drive into germany

rhine river at remagen,

ruhr pocket

The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in late March and early April 1945, near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Germany. For all intents and purposes, it marked the end of major organized resistance on Nazi Germany's Western Front, as more than 300,000 troops were taken prisoner.

elbe river

us and anglo halted on way to berlin

battle of berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II

sun yatsen/guomindang

move towards communism

northern expedition

Its main objective was to unify China under the Kuomintang banner by ending the rule of local warlords.

guandong army

was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the twentieth century. It became the largest and most prestigious command in the IJA.

manchurian incident

Manchurian Incident, was a staged event that was engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for invading the northern part of China known as Manchuria in 1931

sino-japanese war

July 1937 was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea. After more than six months of continuous successes by Japanese army and naval forces and the loss of the Chinese port of Weihaiwei, the Qing leadership sued for peace in February 1895.

quarantine speech

The Quarantine Speech was given by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on October 5, 1937, in Chicago, calling for an international "quarantine of the aggressor nations" as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality and non-intervention that was prevalent at the time. The speech intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by non-interventionists and foes to intervention.

panay incident

The USS Panay Incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat USS Panay while she was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now known as Nanjing), China on December 12, 1937. Japan and the United States were not at war at the time. The Japanese claimed that they did not see the American flags painted on the deck of the gunboat, apologized, and paid an indemnity. Nevertheless, the attack and the subsequent Allison incident in Nanking caused U.S. opinion to turn against the Japanese

rape of nanjing

During this period hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000-80,000 women and children were raped[1] by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army

moral embargo

to avoid scarcity of critical commodities in a likely pre-war environment[1] and, more notably, to limit the exportation of materiel to pre-World War II Imperial Japan.

Nomonhan

undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border Wars fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939.

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (Aug 1940)

was a concept created and promulgated during the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan. It represented the desire to create a self-sufficient "bloc of Asian nations led by the Japanese and free of Western powers

Battle of the Coral Sea

was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and Allied naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. 7 may 1942

battle of midway

United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet.

soloman islands campaign

In a campaign of attrition fought on land, on sea, and in the air, the Allies wore the Japanese down, inflicting irreplaceable losses on Japanese military assets. The Allies retook some of the Solomon Islands (although resistance continued until the end of the war)

imphal

The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in North-East India from March until July 1944. Japanese armies attempted to destroy the Allied forces at Imphal and invade India, but were driven back into Burma with heavy losses.

Operation Ichi-Go

(May-Aug 1944) Japanese launched Operation Ichigo whose aim was to secure the railway route across Japanese occupied territories of North East China and Korea and those in South East Asia and to destroy airbases in the area which serviced USAAF aircraft.

Mariana Islands Campaign

(June-July 1944) was an offensive launched by United States forces against Imperial Japanese forces in the Mariana Islands and Palau in the Pacific Ocean between June and November, 1944 during the Pacific War. The United States offensive, under the overall command of Chester Nimitz, followed the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign and was intended to neutralize Japanese bases in the central Pacific, support the Allied drive to retake the Philippines, and provide bases for a strategic bombing campaign against Japan.

Battle of Leyte Gulf

(23-26 Oct 1944) largest naval battle fought in world war 2

Iwo Jima

(Feb-March 1945) fiercest fighting in the pacific of ww2 . fought for the island of japan.

Okinawa

(Apr-July 1945) was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II. The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until mid-June 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland

Tokyo Fire Raids (March 1945)

often referred to as a "firebombing", was conducted as part of the air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II. The U.S. mounted a small-scale raid on Tokyo in April 1942, with large morale effects. Strategic bombing and urban area bombing began in 1944 after the long-range B-29 Super Fortress bomber entered service, first employed from China and thereafter the Mariana Islands.

Yalta Conference (Feb 1945)

held February 4-11, 1945, was the wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.

Potsdam Declaration

is a statement calling for the Surrender of Japan in World War II. On July 26, 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai-shek issued the document, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction."

Hiroshima (6 Aug) and Nagasaki (9 Aug)

The end. they surrender

ww2 Big three

US, USSR, Great Britain

Harry Truman

US president during the Cold War

Munich Analogy

Analogy of states letting others do what they want in hopes they will stop---example of hitler

'Long Telegram'

The was sent by George Kennan from the United States Embassy in Moscow to Washington, where it was received on February 22nd 1946. The telegram was prompted by US enquiries about Soviet behaviour, especially with regards to their refusal to join the newly created World Bank and International Monetary Fund. In his text, Kennan outlined Soviet belief and practice and proposed the policy of 'containment', making the Telegram a key document in the history of the Cold War.

Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech

(5 Mar 1946) Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1989. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances: symbol=iron curtain

Truman Doctrine

stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere
start of cold war

Marshall Plan

was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization the organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

Warsaw Pact

was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. It was established at the Soviet Union's initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw.

Berlin Blockade

The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 - 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War and the first resulting in casualties. During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.

38th Parallel

Dividing life between north and south korea

Task Force Smith

was the first U.S. Army ground maneuver unit to enter combat in Korea.

UN Security Council Resolution 83

(27 June 1950) determined that the attack on the Republic of Korea by forces from North Korea constituted a breach of the peace. The Council called for an immediate cessation of hostilities and for the authorities in North Korea to withdraw their armed forces to the 38th parallel.

Douglas MacArthur

commander of US/UN forces in Korea until 1951

Pusan Perimeter

(August 1950) Last foothold for US/UN force in South Korea in 1950

Inchon Landing

(15 Sept 1950) site of risky but successful amphibious assault by US forces in 1950

Armistice Agreement at Panmunjom

is a village on the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement that ended the Korean War was signed.

Dwight D. Eisenhower's "New Look" Strategy
B. President John F. Kennedy's "Flexible Response" Strategy

It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources and emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union.

John F. Kennedy's "Flexible Response" Strategy

Flexible response was a defense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to address the Kennedy administration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy of Massive Retaliation. Flexible response calls for mutual deterrence at strategic, tactical, and conventional levels, giving the United States the capability to respond to aggression across the spectrum of warfare, not limited only to nuclear arms.

Bay of Pigs

The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support and encouragement from the US government, in an attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.

Cuban Missile Crisis

(Oct. 1962)was a confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War

Ho Chi Minh

North Vietnamese nationalist leader

Viet Minh

was a national independence coalition formed at Pac Bo on May 19, 1941. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire.

Geneva Conference

whose purpose was to attempt to find a way to unify Korea and discuss the possibility of restoring peace in Indochina

17th Parallel

was the provisional military demarcation line between North and South Vietnam established by the Geneva Accords of 1954.

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

(August 1964) A sea battle resulted, in which the Maddox expended over two hundred and eighty 3-inch and 5-inch shells, and in which four USN F-8 Crusader jet fighter bombers strafed the torpedo boats.

Operation Rolling Thunder

inefficient air campaign. US and South v. North and China

William Westmoreland

He adopted a strategy of attrition against the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam and the North Vietnamese Army. He later served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972.

Tet Offensive

The purpose of the offensive was to strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam and to spark a general uprising among the population that would then topple the Saigon government, thus ending the war in a single blow.

My Lai Massacre

was the Vietnam War mass murder of 347-504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Most of the victims were women, children (including babies), and elderly people. Many were raped, beaten, and tortured, and some of the bodies were later found to be mutilated

Paris Peace Talks (November 1968)

Paris Peace Accords of 1973 intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War, ended direct U.S. military involvement, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam.

"Peace with Honor"

U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech on January 23, 1973 to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War

Khmer Rouge

literally translated as Red Cambodians was the name given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, who were the ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979

Operation Linebacker

aerial interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.

Vietnamization

Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard M. Nixon administration during the Vietnam War, as a result of the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops."

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