Building blocks of the human body.
Are building blocks of all plants and animals; are the smallest functioning units of life; are produced through the division of preexisting cells; each cell maintains homeostasis.
The study of the structure and function of cells.
A watery medium surronding our model body cell.
Plasma membrane or cell membrane
Separates the cell contents.
Material between the cell membrane and nuclear membrane.
The control center for cellular operations.
Plasma membrane (functions)
Physical isolation, control of the exchange of materials with cell's surrounding, sensitivity, and structural support.
Another name for plasma membrane.
May function as receptors, channels, carriers, enzymes, anchors, or identifiers.
Are passive transport mechanisms facilitating membrane passage., the act of dispersing or diffusing something
Plasma membrane the property that determines which substances can enter or leave the cytoplasm.
The net movement of material from an area where its concentration is relatively high to an area where its concentration is lower., the process whereby fluids pass through a filter or a filtering medium
The diffusion of water across a membrane.
The force of movement.
Hydrostatic pressure forces water across a membrane.
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
specialized cell structures characterized as very small/responsible for specific cell activity/located in the cytoplasm
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient(ATP)
Sodium potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell
carrier proteins that transport cations/anions across cell membrane using energy source such as ATP
process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
storage products or other products of cellular metabolism or foreign matter retained in cytoplasm
a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
one of the proteins into which actomyosin can be split
the commonest protein in muscle
two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
Thin hair-like projection from the cell
whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
scattered throughout the cytoplasm, the proteins they manufacture enter the cytosol
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER- membranous organelle), proteins are modified and packaged for secretion
Material moves into or out of a cell in membranous sacs
a giant protein complex that recognizes and destroys proteins tagged for elimination by the small protein ubiquitin
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Network of intracelluar membranes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
has ribosomes attached to its surface where proteins are made that are exported from the cell
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
a part of the endoplasmic reticulum that contains no ribosomes
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
all the cells of your body except your sex cells
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function