Language of Medicine Chapter 20- Keywords

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Chabner's Language of Medicine, 9th edition. Keywords for Language of Medicine Chapter 20- radiology and nuclear medicine.

Computed tomography (CT)

Diagnostic x-ray procedure whereby a cross-sectional image of a specific body segment is produced. Newer scanners can create 3D images as well.

Contrast studies

Radiopaque materials (contrast media) are injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue when shown on the x-ray film.

Gamma camera

Machine to detect gamma rays emitted from radiopharmaceuticals during scanning for diagnostic purposes

Gamma rays

High energy rays emitted by radioactive substances in tracer studies

Half-life

Time required for a radioactive substance to lose half its radioactivity by disintegration

Interventional radiology

Therapeutic or diagnostic procedures performed by a radiologist. Examples are needle biopsy of a mass and drainage of an abscess, typically under the guidance of CT or fluoroscopy.

In vitro

process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed outside a living organism, often in a test tube.

In vivo

process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed within a living organism

Ionization

transformation of electrically neutral substances into electrically charged particles. X-rays cause this of particles within tissues.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

magnetic field and radio waves produce sagittal, coronal and axial images of the body

Nuclear medicine

medical specialty that studies the uses of radioactive substances (radionuclides) in diagnosis of disease

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Positron-emitting radioactive substances given intravenously create a cross-sectional image of cellular metabolism based on local concentration of the radioactive substance. Gives information about metabolic activity.

Radioimmunoassay

Test combines radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect minute quantities of substances in a patient's blood.

Radioisotope

Radioactive form of an element substance; radionuclide

Radiolabeled compound

radiopharmaceutical; used in nuclear medicine studies

Radiology

Medical specialty concerned with the study of x-rays and their use in the diagnosis of disease; includes other forms of energy, such as ultrasound and magnetic waves. Also called diagnostic ____.

Radiolucent

Permitting the passage of x-ray. Appears black on the x-ray film.

Radionuclide

radioactive form of an element that gives off energy in the form of radiation as it disintegrates; radioisotope

Radiopaque

Obstructing the passage of x-rays. Appears white on the x-ray film.

Radiopharmaceutical

Radioactive drug (radionuclide plus chemical) that is administered safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes; a radiotracer. An example is technetium 99m, which combines with albumin (for cardiac imaging) and DTPA (for renal imaging); also called radiolabeled compound.

Scan

Image of an area, organ, or tissue of the body obtained from ultrasound, radioactive tracer studies, CT or MRI

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Radioactive tracer is injected intravenously and computer reconstructs a 3D image based on a composite of many views

Tagging

attaching a radionuclide to a chemical and following its path in the body.

Tracer studies

radionuclides are used as tags or labels attached to chemicals and followed as they travel through body.

Transducer

Handheld device that sends and receives ultrasound signals; probe.

Ultrasonography (US,U/S)

Diagnostic technique that projects and retrieves high-frequency sound waves as they echo off parts of the body

Uptake

Rate of absorption of a radionuclide into an organ or tissue

Ventilation-perfusion studies

Radiopharmaceutical is inhaled (ventilation) and injected intravenously (perfusion) followed by imaging its passage through the respiratory tract

Radiologist

A physician (MD) who specializes in the practice of diagnstic radiology; Reads x-rays, makes diagnoses, does special procedures.

Nuclear Medicine physician

A physician (MD) who specializes in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

Radiographer

Someone who aids physicians in administering diagnostic x-ray procedures.

Nuclear Medicine technologist

Someone who attends to patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures and operates devices under the direction of a nuclear medical physician.

Sonographer

Someone who aids physcicians in performing ultrasound procedures.

Radiologic technicians

Allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine.

Radiologist Assistant

A radiographer who obtains more education but less than a radiologist. Assists radiologist and can perform special procedures.

X-ray technician

Someone with only a limited license and can take x-rays but is not employable in a hospital; assists doctors in an office.

Upper GI series

A barium contrast study that involves oral ingestion of barium sulfate so that the esophagus, stomach and duodenum can be visualized.

Barium enema (BE) study

A lower GI series that opacifies the lume (passageway) of the large intestine using an enema containing barium sulfate.

Small Bowel follow-through

A barium contrast study that traces the passage of barium in a sequential manner as it passes through the small intestine.

Double-Contrast study

A diagnostic radiologic study that uses both a radiopaque and a radiolucent contrast medium. Example: the walls of the stomach or intestine are coated with barium and the lumen is filled with air. These radiographs show the pattern of mucosal ridges.

Angiography

X-ray image (angiogram) of blood vessels and heart chambers is obtained after contrast (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) is injected through a catheter into the appropiate blood vessel or heart chamber.

Coronary angiography

An iodine compound angiogram that can determine the degree of obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart.

cholangiography

X-ray imaging after injection of contrast (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) into bile ducts.

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

The procedure of injecting contrast (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) directly into the common bile duct before taking an x-ray.

intraoperative cholangiography

X-ray imaging after injection of contrast (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) into bile ducts AFTER surgery of the gallbladder or biliary tract.

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

Injection of contrast (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) via a needle through the skin and into the liver before taking an x-ray.

digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

X-ray image of contrast-injected (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) blood vessels is produced by taking 2 x-rays (the first without contrast) and using a computer to subtract obscuring shadows from the second image.

hysterosalpingography

X-ray record of endometrial cavity and fallopian is obtained after injection of contrast material (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) thru the vagina and into the endocervical canal. Determines the patency of the fallopian tubes.

myelography

x-ray imaging of the spinal cord after injection of contrast agent (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) into the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord; usually done on patients who are unable to undergo MRI. CT _______

pyelography

x-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and urinary tract. Contrast (radiopaque fluid containing up to 50% iodine) is injected into a vein or thru a catheter placed thru the urethra, bladder, or ureter and into the renal pelvis.

urography

process of recording x-ray images of the urinary tract after introduction of contrast.

Computed Radiography (CR)

digital radiographic imaging technique using a cassette containing an imaging plate

Direct Radiography (DR)

digital radiographic imaging technique that captures the image directly onto a flat panel detector without the use of a cassette

fluoroscopy

The use of x-rays and a fluorescent screen to produce real-time video images.

Radiofrequency ablation

An interventional radiologic technique in which tumors are removed from tissues (liver, kidney, adrenals).

sonogram

The record (composite picture) produced by an ultrasound.

echocardiography

Ultrasound techniques are used to detect heat valve and blood vessel disorders.

Doppler ultrasound

The second of two ultrasound techniques that make it possible to record blood flow velocity (speed).

Color flow imaging

The first of two ultrasound techniques that make it possible to record blood flow velocity (speed).

endoscopic ultrasonography

A small ultrasound probe is installed on the tip of an endoscope that is inserted into the body.

gadolinium (Gd)

The contrast agent most commonly used in MRI.

Posteroanterior view (PA)

View in which x-ray beam travels from a posteriorly placed source to an anteriorly placed detector (posterior to anterior). Most commonly requested chest x-ray view; chest is closest to "film".

Anteroposterior view (AP)

View in which x-ray beam travels from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector (anterior to posterior). Back is closest to "film".

Lateral view

In a left ___, x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient to a detector placed on the left of the patient. For a right____, vice-versa.

Oblique view

X-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane. This shows regions or structures ordinarily hidden and superimposed in routine PA and AP views.

abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body.

adduction

Movement towards the midline of the body

eversion

Turning outward

extension

Lengthening or straightening a flexed limb.

flexion

Bending a part of the body.

inversion

turning inward

lateral decubitus

Lying down on the side (with x-ray beam horizontally positioned).

prone

lying on the belly (face down)

recumbent

Lying down (may be prone or supine)

supine

Lying on the back (face up)

radioactivity

The spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or rays in coming from the interior of a substance.

Technetium-99m

A pure-gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours

radionuclide scanning

The procedure of making an image by tracking the distribution of radioactive substance in the body.

Perfusion studies

A lung scan in which the radiopharmaceutical is given intravenously, which relies on the passage of the radioactive compound through the capillaries of the lungs.

Ventilation studies

A lung scan in which the radiopharmaceutical is given by inhalation of a gas or aerosol which fills the air sacs (alveoli)

Bone scan

Technetium is used to label phosphate substances and then is injected intravenously. A few hours (2-3) later after it has been taken up by bone, a scan detects infection, inflammation, or tumors inbvolving the skeleton, which appear as areas of high uptake ("hot spots") on the scan.

gallium scan

After a administration of a radionuclide (gallium) a whole body scan is done to test for tumors and abscesses.

Liver and spleen scan

a radioactive tracer substance (technetium?)is administered intravenously and the liver and spleen are scanned to find cysts, abscesses, certain types of tumors, or problems with liver function.

scintigraphy

A type of nuclear medicine imaging that provides pictures (scintigrams). A radiotraces is injected under the skin or deeper using a small needle. A gamma camera then takes a series of images of an area of the body.

Lymphoscintigraphy

Scintigraphy is used to identify a sentinel lymph node, identify areas of lymph node blockage, or evaluate lymphedema.

Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite) scan

Technetium Tc-99m (a radiopharmaceutical) is injected intreavenously and traced to heart muscle. An excercise tolerance test (ETT) is used with it for an ETT-MIBI scan.

Multiple Gated Acquisition (MUGA) scan

Technetium is injected intravenously to study the motion of the heart wall muscle and the ventricle's ability to eject blood (ejection fraction).

Thallium (TI) scan

Thallium-201 (201TI) is injected intravenously to evaluate myocardial perfusion. Well-perfused heart muscle cells will take up the thallium while infarcetd or scarred myocardium will not, and will show up as "cold spots".

Thyroid scan

An iodine radionuclid, usually iodine-123 (123I) is administered orally, and the scan reveals the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland.

Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) study

A study performed to assess the function of the thyroid gland. Radioactive iodine (131I) also called radioiodine is given orally and then a probe is placed over the thyroid gland. It detects gamma rays emitted from the radioactive tracer, which is taken up by the thyroid gland.

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