routes taken by other colonial merchant ships to cross the Atlantic; so called because the routes formed a triangle
The Middle Passage
the inhumane part of the triangular trade because; the second part of the voyage is to ship enslaved Africans to the West Indies and the Americas.
a type of farming in which most of the produce (subsistence crop) is consumed by the farmer and his family (little is left over to sell or exchange); this type of farming is practiced by New England farmers
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware
Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia
New England Colonies
Massachussetts Bay Colony, Connecticut Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Province of New Hampshire
crops that could be sold easily in markets in the colonies and overseas.
means variety; with this came came tolerance for religious and cultural differences.
most of the large Southern plantations were located in the this region of flat low-lying plains along the seacoast
region west of the Tidewater; a region of hills and forests climbing up toward the Appalachian Mountains.
large plantation owners hired these men to keep the slaves working hard; also known as "bosses"
English Parliament took action in 1688. It forced out King James and placed his daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, William of Orange, on the throne; this change showed the power of the elected representatives over the monarch
English Bill of Rights
signed by King William and Queen Mary in 1689; guaranteed certain basic rights to all citizens. This document became part of the heritage of English law that the American colonists shared.
This theory states that as a nation's trade grows, its gold reserves increase, and the nation becomes more powerful.
means to sell abroad
means to buy from foreign markets
refer to a series of laws passed by the English Parliament between 1651 and 1673 that directed the flow of goods between England and the colonies.
refer to trading illegally with other nations; some Colonists engaged in this activity, blatantly disregarding the laws that restricts trade of certain goods
Three Classes of Colonial Government
Charter Colony, Proprietary Colony, Royal Colony
The colonies of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay; the King granted a charter to the colonial government establishing the rules under which the colony was to be governed
Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania; ruled by proprietors. These were individuals or groups to whom Britain had granted land. Proprietors were generally free to rule as they wished. They appointed the governor ad member of the upper house of the legislature, while the colonists elected the lower house.
Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia; Britain directly ruled all these type of colonies. The king appointed a governor and council, known as the upper house. The colonists elected an assembly, called the lower house.
a religious revival swept through the colonies in 1720s; ministers called for "a new birth," a return to the strong faith of earlier days
Prominent preachers of 1720s
Englishman George Whitefield (New England to Georgia) and Jonathan Edwards (Mass.)
means ability to read and write; most colonists valued eduation; the New England Primer used to teach good conduct, reading, and writing
movement that originated in Europe; it spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
Freedom of the Press
the idea that free speech was a basic right of people
a confederacy that was formed around 1570; it included five nations such as te Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida
in the fall of 1753, governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia sent a 21-year-old planter and surveyor into the Ohio country
Albany Plan of Union
Franklin's plan called for "one general government" for 11 of the American colonies
General Edward Braddock
commander-in-cheif sent by Great Britain in 1754; sent to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley
Seven Years' War
the fighting in America helped start a new war in Europe
secretary of state and prime minister
Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe
two British commanders
the capital of New France (now in Canada)
Treaty of Paris in 1763
signed by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War; France was permitted to keep some of its sugar-producing island in te West Indies, but it was forced to give Canada and most of its lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain.
the summer of 1763 when Native Americans killed settlers along the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers in a series of raids
Proclamation of 1762
King George III declared that the Appalachian Mountains ere the temporary western boundary for the colonies; it stopped the settlers' westward expansion which angered people
claimed Newfoundland for Queen Elizabeth
Duke of York
he was King Charles II brother; the King gave the colony of New Amsterdam to his brother and his brother renamed it New York
a Protestant group of dissenters that was called the Society of Friends
started the Bacon's Rebellion which had shown that the settlers were not willing to be restricted to the coast
received a charter and established the colony of Georgia; he made Georgia so people that needed to pay their debts can work there