APUSH Chapter 21

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Emancipation Proclamation

document that proclaimed a war against slavery and guaranteed to fight to the finish

Unconditional Surrender Grant

General US. Grant's nickname, taken from his military demand to the enemy at Fort Donelson and elsewhere

Vicksburg

Crucial Confederate fortress on the Mississippi whose fall to Grant in 1863 cut the South in 2

Battle of Gettysburg

Pennsylvania battle that ended Lee's last hopes of achieving victory through an invasion of the north

Fort Pillow

Mississippi site where black soldiers were massacred after their surrender

Copperheads

Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South

The Man Without a Country

Edward Everett Hale's story of treason and banishment, inspired by the wartime banishing of the Copperhead Clement Vallandigham

Atlanta

Georgia city captured and burned by Sherman just before the election of 1864

Union Party

the temporary 1864 coalition of Republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election

Ford Theater

Washington site where where Lincoln was assassinated by Booth of April 14, 1865

Appomatox Courthouse

Virginia site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865

Lost Cause

Romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat

Bull Run

site of Union defeat in a very early battle of the war

George McClellan

union general who repudiated his party's Copperhead platform and polled 45% of the popular vote in 1864

Robert E. Lee

Southern officer whose failed charge at Gettysburg marked the "high water mark of the Confederacy

Antietam

site of one of Grant's bloodiest battles with the Confederates near Richmond in 1864

"Stonewall" Jackson

daring Southern commander killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville

George Pickett

gentlemanly top commander of the Confederate army

Ulysses S. Grant

Union commander who first made his mark with victories in the West

Gettysburg

site where Lee's last major invasion of the North was turned back

William T. Sherman

Ruthless northern general who waged a march through Georgia

Clement Vallandigham

notorious Copperhead, who ran for governor of Ohio while in exile

Salmon P. Chase

Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864

The Wilderness

Crucial battle in Maryland that staved off European recognition of the Confederacy

Andrew Johnson

Southern War Democrat who ran as Lincoln's "Union Party" vice-presidential candidate in 1864

John Wilkes Booth

Fanatical actor whose act of violence actually harmed the South

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