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Muhammad

Arab prophet of Islam. At the age of 40 he began to preach as God's prophet of the true religion. Muhammad established a theocratic state at Medina after 622 and began to convert Arabia to Islam

Jews

To bargain shrewdly or unfairly with. Often used with down

Palestinians

A historical region of southwest Asia at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and roughly coextensive with modern Israel and the West Bank. Occupied since prehistoric times, it has been ruled by Hebrews, Egyptians, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, and Turks. A British League of Nations mandate oversaw the affairs of the area from 1920 until 1948, when Israel declared itself a separate state and the West Bank territory was occupied by Jordan. The West Bank was subsequently annexed (1950) by Jordan and occupied (1967) by Israel. In 1988 the Palestine Liberation Organization under Yasir Arafat declared its intention of forming an Arab state of Palestine, probably including the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Arab sector of Jerusalem. The Palestinians achieved limited self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank with the signing of the Oslo accords (1993, 1995). Negotiations stalled in 2000 when fighting broke out between Palestinian militants and Israeli forces

Allies

(initial capital letter) (in World War I) the powers of the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), with the nations allied with them (Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy, etc., not including the United States), or, loosely, with all the nations (including the United States) allied or associated with them as opposed to the Central Powers

Sunni

Also called Sunnite. a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam, regarding the first four caliphs as legitimate successors of Muhammad and stressing the importance of Sunna as a basis for law. Compare Shiʿite

Shiah or Shiite

a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him

Allah

God, especially in Islam

Muslims

of or pertaining to the religion, law, or civilization of Islam

Christians

Professing belief in Jesus as Christ or following the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus

Zionist

a worldwide Jewish movement that resulted in the establishment and development of the state of Israel

Arabs

A member of a Semitic people inhabiting Arabia, whose language and Islamic religion spread widely throughout the Middle East and northern Africa from the seventh century

Persians

of or pertaining to ancient and recent Persia (now Iran), its people, or their language

Allies

(initial capital letter) (in World War I) the powers of the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), with the nations allied with them (Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy, etc., not including the United States), or, loosely, with all the nations (including the United States) allied or associated with them as opposed to the Central Powers

Central Powers

(in World War I) Germany and Austria-Hungary, often with their allies Turkey and Bulgaria, as opposed to the Allies

Ottoman Empire

a former Turkish empire that was founded about 1300 by Osman and reached its greatest territorial extent under Suleiman in the 16th century; collapsed after World War I. Capital: Constantinople

United Nations

an international organization, with headquarters in New York City, formed to promote international peace, security, and cooperation under the terms of the charter signed by 51 founding countries in San Francisco in 1945. Abbreviation: UN Compare General Assembly, Security Council

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

- is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. He became president on 6 August 2005 after winning the 2005 presidential election by popular vote.[3] Before becoming president, he was the Mayor of Tehran. He is the highest directly elected official in the country, but, according to Article 113 of Constitution of Iran, he has less total power than the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Iran and has the final word in all aspects of foreign and domestic policies.[4][5]

Ayatollah

(among Shiʿites) a title in the religious hierarchy achieved by scholars who have demonstrated highly advanced knowledge of Islamic law and religion

Osama Bin Laden

Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957)

Hamas

a Palestinian Islamic movement engaged in grass-roots organizing and terrorism against Israel

Hezbollah

a radical Shiʿite Muslim organization in Lebanon engaged in guerrilla warfare against Israel

Taliban

a Muslim fundamentalist group in Afghanistan

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