Chapter 19- The Agricultural Revolution
|what was the major problem with the agricultural system in the 1700s?||It had not changed since ancient Greece|
|the openfield system. How was it set up?|| -land divided into long, narrow strips|
-then farmed jointly by the community
|Crop Rotation:||The secret was in alternating grain crops with nitrogenstoring crops, such as peas and beans, root crops, and grasses.|
This meant more fodder for animals, which meant more meat for the people and more manure for fertilizer.
These improvements necessitated ending the openfield system by "enclosing" the fields.
|Enclosure movement:||Enclosure of the open fields also meant the disappearance of common land which hurt the small landholders and village poor.|
Many peasants and some noble landowners opposed these changes.
The enclosure process was slow, and enclosed and open fields existed side by side for a long time.
Only in the Low Countries and England was enclosure widespread.
|Why did the Low Countries lead the agricultural revolution?|| This Dutch lead was due largely to the need to feed a growing population.|
The growth of the urban population provided good markets for the produce.
|Vermuyden:||A Dutch engineer who helped England drain its marshes to create more arable land|
|Townsend:||Brought Dutch farming ideas to England, including crop rotation and the use of fodder crops|
|Tull:||Advocated the use of horses for plowing and drilling equipment for sowing seeds|
|What was "The Cost of enclosure"?||It was the independent peasant farmers who could not compete, and thus began to disappear.|
The tenant farmers, who rented land from the big landlords, benefited from enclosure.
By 1815 a tiny minority of English and Scottish landlords held most of the land--which they rented to tenants, who hired laborers.
The enclosure movement marked the rise of marketoriented estate agriculture and the emergence of a landless rural proletariat.
|What were the original limitations of population growth?||the traditional checks on growth were famine, disease, and war.|
|What were the causes of the Population Explosion?|| -partly because the plague was gone|
(the black rat was eliminated by the brown rat)
(stricter quarantine measures against plague)
-advances in medicine (such as inoculation against smallpox)
-improvements in sanitation promoted better public health
-increase in food supply=fewer famines
|What lead to peasants undertaking manufacturing at home?|| -Rural poverty and population growth led to peasants undertaking manufacturing at home|
--->eventually challenged the monopoly of the urban craft industry
|the puttingout system:||-based on rural workers producing cloth in their homes for merchant capitalists who supplied the raw materials and paid for the finished goods|
|effects of puttingout system:|| reduced rural unemplyment and provided cheap goods|
-England led the way in the conversion from urban to rural textile production
|the textile industry:|| Huge industry in England. And example of the puttingout system.|
-the women would spin and the men would weave.
-took place in their cottage
|Problems with the textile industry:|| -not enough spinner to make yarn for the weavers|
-strained relations often existed between workers and capitalist emplyers
-the capitalist found it difficult to control the worker