Islam

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Muhammad

Began Islam

Muhammad's life

Born in 570, orphaned early in age,raised by uncle.
Grew up in poverty, at age 40 marries Kadija.
610-visited Cage of Hira, Angel Gabriel comes
622- flees for safety in medina, gains political+religious power
630-conquests mecca
632-visits punt of mercy and later dies

Mount of Mercy

Hajj: people go and pray, ask for forgiveness and forgive others.

Abraham

father of monotheism, wife of sarah, father of ishmael and isacc

isaac

chosen son according to christianity and judaism beginner of 12 arabian tribes

ishmael

chosen son according to islam, son of hagar, beginner of 12 tribes of islam

Caliph

successor, political and religious leader of islam

the four "rightly guided caliphs"

Abu Bakr: Muhammad's best friend, w/him on hirah
Umar:
Uthman:
Ali:

islam

peace, surrendering to allah

sunni/shi-a

opposed groups about who should rule arabia
sunni: anyone could b a caliph
shi-a: only a descendent of a prophet (tribes of islam) could be a caliph

ka'aba

a shrine in mecca believed to have been built by abraham with the help of angel gabriel/allah

tawaf

circling of ka'aba

kiswah

drape/cloth with covers the ka'aba

jamarat

...

shari'a

...

koran

holy book of islam, believed to be final draft of allah's word, only true to muslims in islam

ummayads

family that came to power by hereditary, surrounded themselves by wealth, moved capitol to damascus

abbasid

Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts. Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads 750 C.E.

dome of the rock mosque

where Muhammad ascended into heaven to pray with other prophets,

al-andalus

a Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, eighth century a.d.

the 5 pillars of faith

shahada: declaration of faith
salat: prayer
zakat: alms giving
sawm: fasting during ramadan
hajj: pilgrimage to mecca

steps of the hajj

1. circle ka'aba
2. running between hills (sa'i)
3. valley of mina
4. Mount of mercy
5. stoning satan
6. circle ka'aba (tawaf)

what are the characteristics of pre-islamic arabia that helped lead to rise of islam

silk rd shifted to medina+mecca-> new wealth->corruption of society, something to unite the people and for people to believe in was necessary, a religion was perfect. Judaism and christianity were the primary languages, b/c islam is very similar it made the change even easier

top 5 religions

Christianity 2 Billion
Islam 1.2 Billion
Hinduism 785 Million
Buddhism 360 Million
Judaism 17 Million

When did the split b/w sunni and shi'a begin?

...

What effects does that split have on modern islam and middle east?

...

how does muhammad compare to others in the 100?

most were raised in center of civilization, highly cultures areas with more opportunity/education

Bedoin tribes

small armies united by muhammad/islam and went on to conquest many countries

Conquests

630: mecca (muhammad)
637: persia
642: egypt/ baisentine empire/persia
711: all of north africa

battle of tours

franks stop islamic armies from conquering more area

muhammad vs. jesus

muhammad was entirely responsible for creation of islam (came up with moral+ethnic principles, established practices). Jesus is the base of christianity, and a lot of what he did has to do with moral/ethnic practices but saint paul came up with most theological things

why was al-andalus important for future european advancement?

...

what were 3 inventions that came from al-andalus to christian europe?

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