Language of Medicine Chapter 21 -Keywords

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Chabner's Language of Medicine, 9th edition. Keywords for Chapter 21-pharmacology.

addiction

Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drug

additive action

Drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each

aerosol

particles of drug suspended in air

anaphylaxis

exaggerated hypersensitivity reation to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein

antagonistic action

combination of two drugs gives less than a additive effect (action)

antidote

agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug

brand name

commercial name for a drug: trademark or trade name

chemical name

chemical formula for a drug

contraindications

factors that prevent the use of a drug or treatment

controlled substances

drugs that produce tolerance and dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction

dependence

prolonged use of a drug that may lead to physiologic need for its actions in the body

dose

amount of drug administered, usually measured in milligrams

Food and Drug administration (FDA)

U.S. government agency having the legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manafacture and clinical use

generic name

legal noncommercial name for a drug

iatrogenic

condition caused by treatment (drugs or procedures) given by physicicans or medical personnel

idiosyncratic reaction

unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive patient but not seen in most people

inhalation

adminstration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouth

medicinal chemistry

study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure and biological effects

molecular pharmacology

study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors

oral administration

drugs are given by mouth

parenteral administration

drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins (any route other than throughthe digestive tract). Examples are subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intrathecal, and intracavitary injections

pharmacist

specialist in preparing and dispensing drugs

pharmacy

location for preparing and dispensing drugs; also the study of preparing and dispensing drugs

pharmacodynamics

study of the effects and strength of a drug within the body

pharmacokinetics

study of drug concentration in tissues and body fluids over a period of time

pharmacologist

specialist in the study of the properties, uses, and actions of drugs

pharmacology

study of the preparation, properties, uses, and actions of drugs

Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)

reference book that lists drug products

receptor

target substance with which a drug interacts in the body

rectal administration

drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectum

resistance

lack of beneficial response: seen when drugs are unable to control the disease process

response

desired and benifical effect of a drug

schedule

exact timing and frequency of drug administration

side effect

adverse reaction, usually minor, that routinely results from the use of a drug

sublingual administration

drugs are given by placement under the tongue

synergism

combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone. Also known as potentiation.

syringe

instrument (tube) for introducing or withdrawing fluids from the body

tolerance

larger and larger drug doses must be given to achieve the desired effect. the patient becomes resistant to the action of a drug as treatment progresses

topical application

drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, creams, and lotions are applied topically

toxicity

harmful effects of a drug

toxicology

study of harmful chemicals and the effects on the body

transport

movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells

United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

authoritative list of drugs, formulas, and preparations that sets a standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing

vitamin

substance found in foods and essential in small quantities for growth and good health

ACE inhibitor

lowers blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the conversation of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (a powerful vasconstrictor)

amphetamine

central nervous system stimulant used to prevent narcolepsy (seizures of sleep), to suppress appetite and to calm hyperkinetic children.

analgesic

relieves pain

androgen

male hormone

anesthetic

Reduces or eliminates sensation; general and local.

angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs)

lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels

antacid

neutralizes acid in the stomach

antiandrogen

slows the uptake of androgens or interferes with their effect in tissues

antiarrhythmic

treats abnormal heart rhythms

antibiotic

Chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body. Examples are antifungals, cephalosporins, erythromycin, tetracycline, antituberculars, penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides.

anticoagulant

prevents blood clotting

anticonvulsant

prevents convulsions (abnormal brain activity)

antidepressant

relieves symptoms of depression

antidiabetic

drug given to prevent or treat diabetes mellitus

antidiarrheal

prevents diarrhea

antiemetic

Prevents nausea and vomiting

antihistamine

blocks the effects of histamine and helps prevent symptoms of allergy

antinauseant

relieves nausea and vomiting; antiemetic

antiplatelet

reduces the tendency of platelets to stick together and form a clot

antiulcer

inhibits the secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach

antiviral

acts against viruses such as herpesviruses and HIV

aromatase inhibitor

reduces estrogen in the blood by blocking the enzyme aromatase

bactericidal

kills bacteria

bacteriostatic

inhibits bacterial growth

beta-blocker

blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes; antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive

bisphosphonate

prevents bone loss in osteoporosis and osteopenia

caffeine

central nervous system stimulant that is used in drugs to relieve certain types of headache by constricting cerebral blood vessels.

calcium channel blocker

blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscle and muscle lining of blood vessels; used as an antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive; also called calcium antagonist

cardiac glycoside

increases the force of contraction of the heart

cardiovascular drugs

Drugs that act on the heart and blood vessels. This category of drug includes ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, cholesterol-lowering drugs or statins and diuretics

cathartic

relieves constipation

cholesterol-lowering drug

lowers cholesterol by preventing its production by the liver; statin

diuretic

increases the production of urine and thus reduces the volume of fluid in the body; antihypertensive

emetic

promotes vomiting

estrogen

female hormone that promotes development of secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues

gastrointestinal drug

Relieves symptoms of diseases in gastrointestinal tract. Ex: antacids, antiulcer drugs, antidiarrheals, cathartics, laxatives, purgatives, and antinauseants (antiemetics).

glucocorticoid

hormone from the adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation

hypnotic

produces sleep or a trance-like state

laxative

weak cathartic

narcotic

habit-forming drug (potent analgesic) that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility (also known as opioids); morphine and opium are examples.

progestin

female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy

purgative

relieves constipation; strong cathartic

respiratory drug

Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections that affect breathing; bronchodilators are examples

sedative

a mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep. Benzodiazepines are examples.

stimulant

excites and promotes activity. caffeine and amphetamines are examples

thyroid hormone

stimulates cellular metabolism

tranquilizer

controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior; also called anxiolytics.

Intracavity instillation

A type of parenteral administration in which an injection is made into a body cavity such as the peritoneal or pleural cavity,

pleurodesis

A procedure in which drugs are introduced into the plerual cavity of people who have pleural effusions due to malignant disease. The drug causes the pleural surfaces to adhere.

Intradermal injection

A type of parenteral adminitstration in which a shallow injection is made into the upper layers of the skin.

Subcutaneous (hypodermic) injection (SC)

A type of parenteral administration in which a small hypodermic needle is introduced into the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, usually on the upper arm, thigh, or abdomen.

Intramuscular injection (IM)

A type of parenteral administration in which an injection of the muscle is given usually in the buttock or upper arm.

Intrathecal instillation

A type of parenteral drug administration in which instillation occurs in the space under the membranes (meninges) surrounding the spinal cord and brain. Also known as a Lumbar puncture.

Intravenous injection (IV)

A type of parenteral drug administration in which the injection is given directly into a vein.

Pumps

Battery-powered ___, may be used for continuous administration of drugs by the subcutaneous or intravenous route.

antiseptic

Against infection

antipruritics

Against itching

Transdermal patch

A type of topical application that is used to deliver drugs continuously through the skin; such as estrogen for hormone replacement therapy, pain medication, and nicotine for smoking cesation programs.

Idiosyncrasy

A unexpected effect that occurs in the patient after administration of a drug.

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

Act on tissues to inhibit prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that sensitize peripheral pain receptors). Reduces fever, pain, and inflammation.

general anesthetic

An agent that reduces or eliminates sensation in all tissues of the body.

local anesthetic

An agent that reduces or eliminates sensation in a particular region.

warfarin (Coumadin)

An anticoagulant that blocks the formation of a number of clot-forming factors in blood. Reversed by Vitamin K.

Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)

An anticoagulant that dissolves clots and is used to open vessels after myocardial infarction.

heparin

A natural anticoagulant purified from pig intestine or bovine(cow) lung.

tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

Antidepressants that increase the action of neurotransimtters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from the synapses (spaces between nerve cells). (1)

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

An antidepressant that increases the action of neurotransimtters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from the synapses (spaces between nerve cells). (2)

monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Antidepressants which increase the length of time neurotransmitters work by blocking monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that normally inactivates neurotransmitters.

Anti-Alzheimer drugs

Drugs used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer disease. They act by aiding brain neurotransmitters (acetylcholine) or sheilding brain cells from glutamate, a neurotransmitter that at high levels contributes to death of brain cells.

insulin

an antidiabetic used to treat type-1 diabetes

sulfonylureas

An oral antidiabetic drug that lowers the levels of glucose in the blood by stimulating the production of insulin. Treats Type-2 diabetes.

biguanides

Oral antidiabetic drugs that increase the body's sensitivity to insulin and reduces the production of glucose by the liver. Treats Type-2 diabetes.

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

An oral antidiabetic drug that temporarily blocks enzymes that digest sugars. Treats Type-2 diabetes.

thiazolidinediones

An oral antidiabetic drug that enhances glucose uptake into tissues. Treats Type-2 diabetes.

meglitinides

An oral antidiabetic drug that stimulates the beta cells in the pancreas to produce insulin. Treats Type-2 diabetes.

nitroglycerin

A cardiovascular drug perscribed to dilate coronary blood vessels before other drugs are used.

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

A cardiovascular drug that helps the heart pump more forcefully in heart failure.

Cholesterol-binding drug

A cardiovascular drug binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract.

Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)

An endocrine drug has estrogen-like effects on bone and on lipid metabolism. Used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis and breast cancer.

calcitonin

An endocrine drug and thyroid hormone that increases calcium in the blood and promotes bone deposition.

Growth hormone release-inhibiting factor (somatostatin)

An endocrine drug that can be manufactured. It inhibits production of natural growth hormone.

ranitidine (Zantac) and cimetidine (Tagamet)

Gastrointestinal drugs and histamine H2 receptor antagonists that turn off histamine, which promotes secretionof stomach acid.

omeprazole (Prilosec)

A gastrointestinal drug that works by stopping acid production by proton pump inhibition.

Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) drugs

Gastrointestinal drugs that are used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's. Also used against rheumatoid arthritis.

bronchodilator

A respiratory drug that opens bronchial tubes and is administered by injection or aerosol inhaler.

Steroid drug

A respiratory drug that is inhaled or given intravenously and orally to reduce chronic inflammation in respiratory passageways.

Leukotriene modifier

A respiratory drug that prevent asthma attacks by blocking leukotriene (a bronchocostrictor) from binding to receptors in respiratory tissues.

Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines

Two major categories of sedative-hyponotics that depress the central nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep.

Benzodiazepine

A minor tranquilizer that controls minor symptoms of anxiety.

Phenothiazines

A major tranquilizer that is used to control more severe disturbances of behavior.

Hospital formulary

The most complete and up-to-date listing of drugs that gives information about their characteristics and clinical usage as approved by that particular hospital.

Antiosteoporosis drugs

Drugs that treat osteoporosis and are designed to increase bone formation, prevent bone loss and increase calcium deposition.

Cox-2 inhibitors

A newer class of NSAIDS that block the effects of a specific part of the pathway that produces prostaglandins. Increase the risk of clots and heart attacks but have fewer GI side effects than tradition NSAIDS.

antifungal medication

Treats fungal infections that occur in the skin, vagina, mouth, bloodstream, and other organs.

antitubercular drug

Treats tuberculosis, a chronic and often drug-resistant infection.

Anaphylactic shock

A severe allergic reaction that could include dyspnea, hypotensin, and, loss of consciousness.

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