Physical Geography

51 terms by moran14

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characteristics of shield volcanoe

basaltic, dome shaped, mid-ocean ridge, formed over hot spots

what is faulting

line can be seen, fault plane in ground,

what is an example of a strike slip fault

San Andres

what is volcanism

movement of magma either into or onto its surface

what is the metamorphic of granite

gneiss

what is the metamorphic of sandstone

quartzite

what is the metamorphic of shale

slate

what is the metamorphic of limestone

marble

what is plate tectonics

movement and interaction of lithospheric plates

what did wegner do

showed africa and s. america were joined, continetal drift, origin of continets and oceans

how many plates are there?

12

what are the characteristics of a divergent plate

sea floor spreading, new rock created, basaltic volcanism, techtonic stress, mid-ocean ridge

what are the characteristics of a convergent plate

subduction, rock destroyed, andositic volcanism, compression, ocean to continent

what is folding and what are examples

Synclines, anticline, alps, andee, himalayas

what did Arthur Holmes do

sonar data, mid-ocean ridge volcanic, convection in mantle due to changes in its density

what did harry hess do

paleomagetism, magnatite in basalt

what is paleomagetism

record of eaths magnetism

what did Vine and Matthews due

magnetometer and magnetic polarity reversals

what is glomar challenge

youngest mid ocean ridge, oldest by trenches

what are Hawaii's two active volcanoes

Kilauea and Mauna Loa

How was hawaii created

formed over hot spots

what would an example of lateral eruption be

Mt. St. Helens

what are characteristics of lococolith

mushroom top, and black hills, SD and they are concordant

what are characteristics of sill

sheet like, Palisades of Hudson R. and are concordant

what are characteristics of batholith

massive and intrusion, Sierra Nevada and are discordant

what are characteristics of a dike

wall like intrustion, associated w/ ship rock and are discordant

what is a glacier

large body of ice that moves

what is continental ice sheets

largets, covers most of glaciers, Greenland and Antartica

what are some impacts of glaciers

going to effect the sea levels, creates icebergs, and earthquakes

what are the different phases of Alpine Glaciers

cirque- beginning, valley- growing, piedmont- outside of valley

what are characteristics of erosion

plucking and abrasion or scrape marks

what are characteristics of deposition

drift, unstratified drift and stratified

how are glaciers formed

climate, meltwater, latitude, elevation and mass

how do glaciers move

pancake batter, mass balance, conveyor belt

how are igneous rocks formed

by cooling and solidification of molten rock

how do extrusive igneous rocks form

from the cooling of lava or the bonding of pyroclastic materials on the aurface

what is subduction

dense oceanic plate slowly and inexorably sinks into the asthenosphere

what is a terrane

is a small-to-medium mass of lithosphere bounded on all sides by faults that may have been carried a long distance by a drifting plate, eventually to converge with the edge of another plate

lava domes

have masses of very viscous lava such as high-silica rhyolite that are too thick and pasty to flow very far

what is a shield volcanoe

basaltic lava tends to flow quite easily over the surrounding surface

what is a cinder cone

smallest of the volcanic peak

what is caldera

large, steepsided, roughly circular depression resulting from the explosion and or collapse of a large volcano

what is one of the most common hazards associated with composite volcanoes

volcanic mudflows

what is volcanic mudflow

a loose mantle of ash and pyroclastic flow deposits on the slopes of a volcano can be mobilized easily by heavy rain or by the melting of snow and glaciers during an eruption

what is a roche mountonnee

produced when a bedrock hill is overrideen by moving ice

moraine

is a general term for glacier deposited landforms composed entirely or largely of till

what is terminal moraine

a ridge of till that marks the outermost limit of glacial advance

what is recessional moraine

may develop as the glacier recedes

what is kettles

can form when large blocks of ice left by a retreating glacier become surrounded or even covered by glacial grift, after the ice melts the morainal surface collapses, leaving an irregular depression

what is cirque

is a broad amphitheater hollowed out at the head of a glacial valley

what is a horn

steep-sided, pyramid-shaped mountain peak formed by expansive quarrying of headwalls where three or more cirques intersect

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