26-adult, 33-child, encloses and protects the spinal cord and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs and back muscles
the outermost of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord
the middle layer of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord
the innermost of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord
a space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord and through which CSF circulates
withdrawing CSF from subarachnoid space (L3-L4, L4-L5)
a space between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral canal, containing areolar connective tissue and a plexus of veins
where does the dural sac end?
where does the spinal cord end?
occurs in the upper limb nerves
occurs in the lower limb nerves
the tapered portion of the spinal cord inferior to the lumbar enlargement
a tail-like array of roots of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord
31 pairs, mixed, originate in spinal cord from posterior and anterior roots
posterior (dorsal) root
the structure composed of sensory axon lying between a spinal nerve and the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal cord
anterior (ventral) root
the structure composed of axons of motor neurons that emerges from the anterior aspect of the spinal cord and extends laterally to join a posterior root, forming a spinal nerve
a microscopic tube running the length of the spinal cord in the gray commisure. channel running longitudinally in the center of the osteon of mature compact bone
connective tissue wrapping around individual nerve axons
a small bundle or cluster around the endoneurium that consists of axons
connective tissue wrapping around fascicles in a nerve
the superficial connective tissue covering around an entire nerve
a branch of spinal nerve containing motor and sensory axons supplying the muscles, skin, and bones of the posterior part of the head, neck, and trunk
the anterior branch of a spinal nerve containing sensory and motor fibers to the muscles and skin of the anterior surface of the head, neck, trunk, and the limbs
the autonomic nervous system operates via _____________
the ability of the ANS to maintain homeostasis depends on a continual flow of ______________________ in visceral organs and blood vessels into the CNS.
The ANS usually operates without _______________________________
hypothalamus, brain stem
The ANS is regulated by the centers in the brain, mainly the __________ and the __________________
Sensory input from the ANS is mostly from _______________
Somatic nervous system effectors are _______________
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, many glands
Autonomic motor neurons regulate the activity of ___________, ___________________, ___________
the sympathetic division is also called the ________________________
the parasympathetic division is also called the ________________________
the _________ regulates the balance of sympathetic vs. parasympathetic activity of autonomic tone
sweat glands, arrector pili, kidneys, spleen, blood vessels, adrenal medulla
name 6 structures that receive only sympathetic innervation
exercise, emergency, excitement, embarassment
name 4 "E situations"
salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, digestion
SLUDD stands for?
How many pairs of spinal nerves?
how many pairs of cervical?
how many pairs of thoracic?
how many pairs of lumbar?
how many pairs of sacral?
how many pairs of coccygeal?
where is the grey mater in the spinal cord?
where is the white mater in the spinal cord?
dorsal root ganglion
A group of sensory neuron cell bodies found just posterior to the spinal cord on either side.
where is the spinal tap or lumbar puncture taken?
innervates the diaphragm
supplies skin and muscles of the neck and supports the shoulders
supplies shoulders and upper limbs
radial nerve damage
can be caused from a tight cast or improper deltoid injection, results in wrist drop
median nerve damage
can be caused by repetitive strain (typing) and results in carpal tunnel syndrome
ulnar nerve damage
results in inability to adduct or abduct fingers and "claw hand"
supplies the abdominal wall, external genitals, and lower limbs
femoral nerve damage
loss of sensation in leg and anteromedial aspect of thigh, inability to extend leg
supplies buttocks, perineum, lower limbs
sciatic nerve damage
pain in buttocks, could be caused by pregnancy, sitting on wallet, or improper IM injection
the intercostal nerves extend from what to what?
do not enter into a plexus, directly inervates into space
sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector
name the order of the reflex arc
reflex action in the gray mater of the spinal cord
reflex action in the brain stem
reflex where you are aware of involved contractions
reflex where you are not consciously aware such as smooth, cardiac, and most glands
reflex action when stroked, the toes fan upwards
neurons are not myelinated
why do the toes fan upwards instead of plantar flexion?
results in plantar flexion, inability of reflex could be a result of subarachnoid hemorrhages
damage could be caused by chronic diabetes or syphillis to this reflex
rest and digest activities
the parasympathetic response prepares the body for?
fight or flight is associated with?
the sympathetic and parasympathetic can excite or inhibit, this is due to the release of different _________________ and their effect
mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nocireceptors are examples of?
another name for "branch"
another name for "braid"
reflex on the same side as the stimulus
presence of a single synapse in a reflex
fast, involuntary, unplanned response to a stimulus
responds to a stimulus by producing a generator or receptor potential
axon conducts impulses from receptor to integrating center
one or more regions within the CNS that relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons
axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector
muscle or gland that response to motor nerve impulses